ื”ืชื "ื› ืฉืœ ืžื ื•ืจื•ืช ื”ื’ื™ื“ื•ืœ: ื›ืœ ืžื” ืฉื—ืฉื•ื‘ ืœื“ืขืช ืœืคื ื™ ืฉืจื•ื›ืฉื™ื ืžื ื•ืจื” ืœื’ื™ื“ื•ืœ ืฆืžื—ื™ื

ืื ืขื“ ื›ื” ื‘ื—ืจืชื ื•ืžื“ื“ืชื ืžื ื•ืจื” ืœื’ื™ื“ื•ืœ ืฆืžื—ื™ื ืœืคื™ ื”ื•ื•ืื˜, ื”ืœื•ืžื™ื ื™ื, ื”ืœื•ืงืกื™ื ืื• ื”ืคื•ื˜-ืงื ื“ืœ (Lumen, Lux.Footcandle) ืฉื”ืคื™ืงื”, ื”ืจื™ ืฉื›ื ื™ืกืชืŸ ืฉืœ ืžื ื•ืจื•ืช ื”ืœื“ (LED) ืืœ ื”ืฉื•ืง ืฉื™ื ื• ืืช ื”ื›ืœืœื™ื ืขื ื™ืขื™ืœื•ืช ื•ืคื•ื˜ื ืฆื™ืืœ ืื“ื™ืจ ืœื—ืกื›ื•ืŸ. ื”ืชืคืฉื˜ื•ืชืŸ ืฉืœ ืžื ื•ืจื•ืช ื”ืœื“ ืœื’ื™ื“ื•ืœ ื”ื‘ื™ืื” ืœืžื™ืกื•ื“ ืฉื™ื˜ืช ืžื“ื™ื“ื” ื—ื“ืฉื”, ืื—ื™ื“ื” ื•ืžื•ืกื“ืจืช ืฉืžืืคืฉืจืช ืœื ื• ืœื‘ื—ื•ืŸ ื™ืขื™ืœื•ืช ืฉืœ ืชืื•ืจืช ื’ื™ื“ื•ืœ ื‘ืื•ืคืŸ ืื•ื‘ื™ื™ืงื˜ื™ื‘ื™, ืžื“ืขื™ ื•ื‘ืจื•ืจ ื˜ืจื ื”ืจื›ื™ืฉื” ื•ืœื”ืชืื™ืžื” ื‘ื“ื™ื•ืง ืœืฆืžื—ื™ื ืฉืื ื• ืžื’ื“ืœื™ื ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ื—ื™ืฉื•ื‘ ืžืชืžื˜ื™ ื™ื—ืกื™ืช ืคืฉื•ื˜. ืื– ืื™ืš ื™ื•ื“ืขื™ื ืื™ื–ื• ืžื ื•ืจืช ื’ื™ื“ื•ืœ ืื ื—ื ื• ืฆืจื™ื›ื™ื ืœืฆืžื— ื”ืกืคืฆื™ืคื™ ืฉืื ื• ืจื•ืฆื™ื ืœื’ื“ืœ? ืื™ืš ืžื•ื“ื“ื™ื ื›ืžื” ืฉืขื•ืช ื‘ื™ื•ื ืฆืจื™ืš ืœื”ืคืขื™ืœ ืื•ืชื”? ืžื” ื”ื”ื‘ื“ืœ ื‘ื™ืŸ ืกื•ื’ื™ ื”ืžื ื•ืจื•ืช, ืžื•ื ื—ื™ื ืฉื›ื“ืื™ ืœื”ื›ื™ืจ ื•ืขื•ื“ ื”ืจื‘ื” ื™ื•ืชืจ.

ื ืชื—ื™ืœ ื‘ื–ื”, ื”ืฉืžืฉ ื”ื™ื ื”ืฉืœื™ื˜ื” ื”ื‘ืœืชื™ ืžืขื•ืจืขืจืช ืฉืœ ืขื•ืœื ื”ืฆื•ืžื—. ื‘ืžืฉืš ืžืื•ืช ืžื™ืœื™ื•ื ื™ ืฉื ื™ื ื”ื™ื ืžืขื ื™ืงื” ื—ื™ื™ื ื•ื”ืชื—ื“ืฉื•ืช ืœืขื•ืœื ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ืขื™ื“ื•ื“ ืชื”ืœื™ืš ื”ืคื•ื˜ื•ืกื™ื ืชื–ื” ื‘ืฆืžื—ื™ื ื•ืขื“ ืœืื—ืจื•ื ื” ืœื ื”ื™ื” ืžื™ ืฉื‘ืืžืช ื”ืขื– ืœื ืกื•ืช ืœื”ื—ืœื™ืฃ ืื•ืชื”.
ื”ืชื™ืขื•ื“ ื”ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ืฉืื ื• ืžื›ื™ืจื™ื ืœื ื™ืกื™ื•ืŸ ืžื—ืงืจ ืฉืœ ืชืื•ืจื” ืœื’ื™ื“ื•ืœ ืฆืžื—ื™ื ื”ื™ื” ื‘ืขืฉื•ืจ ืฉืœ 1860, ื›ืืฉืจ ืฉื ื™ ื—ื•ืงืจื™ื ืฆืจืคืชื™ื™ื ื‘ื”ื–ื“ืžื ื•ื™ื•ืช ืฉื•ื ื•ืช (Mangon 1861 ื•-Prilleux1869) ื ื™ืกื• ืœื—ืงื•ืช ืืช ืื•ืจ ื”ืฉืžืฉ ื‘ืืžืฆืขื•ืช ืชืื•ืจื” ืžืœืื›ื•ืชื™ืช, ืืš ื”ืฉื•ืจื” ื”ืชื—ืชื•ื ื” ืฉืœ ื”ืžื—ืงืจื™ื ื”ืœืœื• ื”ื™ื™ืชื” ื—ื•ืกืจ ื™ืขื™ืœื•ืช ืžืžืฉื™ืช ื‘ื”ืฉื•ื•ืื” ืœื›ืžื•ืช ื”ืื ืจื’ื™ื” ื•ื”ื›ืกืฃ ื”ืžื•ืฉืงืข ื‘ื”ืืจื” ืœืฉื ื’ื™ื“ื•ืœ ื”ืฆืžื—ื™ื.
ืžืื– ื•ืขื“ ืœืฉื ื™ื ื”ืื—ืจื•ื ื•ืช ื”ืฉื™ืžื•ืฉ ื‘ืžื ื•ืจื•ืช ืœื ื’ื“ืœ ื›ืคื™ ืฉื”ื™ื™ื ื• ืžืฆืคื™ื – ื‘ืขื™ืงืจ ื‘ืฉืœ ืฉื™ืงื•ืœื™ ืขืœื•ืช / ืชื•ืขืœืช ืืฉืจ ื”ื™ื™ืชื” ื ืžื•ื›ื” ื•ืœื ื›ื“ืื™ืช. ืขื‘ื•ืจ ืžืจื‘ื™ืช ื”ืื ืฉื™ื ืื•ืจ ื”ืฉืžืฉ ื”ื ืคืœื ืขื“ื™ื™ืŸ ื”ื™ื•ื•ื” ืืช ื”ืืœื˜ืจื ื˜ื™ื‘ื” ื”ืขื“ื™ืคื” ืœื’ื™ื“ื•ืœ ื”ืฆืžื—ื™ื.

ื›ื™ื•ื ื”ืฉื™ืžื•ืฉ ื‘ืžื ื•ืจื•ืช ื’ื™ื“ื•ืœ ืœืฆืžื—ื™ื ืฉื›ื™ื— ื‘ืงืจื‘ ื—ืงืœืื™ื, ืžื’ื“ืœื™ื ื‘ื™ืชื™ื™ื, ื—ืžืžื•ืช ื”ื™ื“ืจื•ืคื•ื ื™ื•ืช, ืžืขืจื›ื™ ื’ื™ื“ื•ืœ Indoor, ืžื™ื™ื—ืจื™ื, ืžื ื‘ื™ื˜ื™ื ื•ืขื•ื“, ื•ื–ืืช ื”ื•ื“ื•ืช ืœืขื•ื‘ื“ื” ืฉื”ื”ืชืงื“ืžื•ืช ื”ื˜ื›ื ื•ืœื•ื’ื™ืช ื”ืžื”ื™ืจื” ืฉืœ ื–ืžื ื ื• ืžื™ื™ืขืœืช ื•ืžืฉืคืจืช ืืช ืืคืงื˜ื™ื‘ื™ื•ืช ื”ืžื ื•ืจื•ืช ื‘ืงืฆื‘ ืžืขื•ืจืจ ืชืงื•ื•ื”, ืฉื ื™ ื”ื—ื•ืงืจื™ื ื”ืฆืจืคืชื™ื™ื ืžื”ืžืื” ื”-19 ื•ื“ืื™ ื”ื™ื• ืฉืžื—ื™ื ืœืฉืžื•ืข ืขืœ ื›ืš.

ื”ื”ื™ืกื˜ื•ืจื™ื” ื•ื”ืื‘ื•ืœื•ืฆื™ื” ืฉืœ ืžื ื•ืจื•ืช ื”ื’ื™ื“ื•ืœ

ื”ืžื ื•ืจื” ืฉืœ ืื“ื™ืกื•ืŸ
ืชื•ืžืก ืื“ื™ืกื•ืŸ ืงื™ื‘ืœ ืคื˜ื ื˜ ืขืœ ื”ื ื•ืจื” ืฉืœื• ื‘ื™ื ื•ืืจ 1880. ืฆื™ืœื•ื ื‘ืื“ื™ื‘ื•ืช: ื”ืืจื›ื™ื•ืŸ ื”ืœืื•ืžื™ ืฉืœ ืืจื”"ื‘

ื‘ืชื—ื™ืœืช ื”ื“ืจืš ืคื™ืชื•ื— ื˜ื›ื ื•ืœื•ื’ื™ื•ืช ืชืื•ืจื” ืžืœืื›ื•ืชื™ืช ืœืงื— ืฉืœื•ืฉื” ืžืกืœื•ืœื™ื ืฉื•ื ื™ื. ื”ืจืืฉื•ื ื” ื”ื™ื™ืชื” ื ื•ืจืช ืœื”ื˜, ืืฉืจ ืื•ืคื™ื™ื ื” ืœืื—ืจ ื”ืžืฆืืช "ื ื•ืจืช ื”ืœื™ื‘ื•ืŸ" ืฉืœ ืื“ื™ืกื•ืŸ. ืฉื ื™ื™ื” ื”ื™ื™ืชื” "ืชืื•ืจืช ืงืฉืช" (ARC LAMP), ืืฉืจ ืžืฆืื” ืืช ื“ืจื™ื›ืช ืจื’ืœื” ื‘ืขื•ืœื ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ื”ืคื™ื›ืชื” ืœื‘ื—ื™ืจื” ื”ืคื•ืคื•ืœืจื™ืช ืขื‘ื•ืจ ืชืื•ืจืช ื”ืจื—ื•ื‘. ืฉืœื™ืฉื™ืช ื”ื™ื• ืžื ื•ืจื•ืช ื”ืคืจื™ืงื” ืืฉืจ ืคื•ืชื—ื• ื‘ืชื—ื™ืœืช ื“ืจื›ืŸ ื‘ืืžืฆืขื•ืช ืื“ื™ ื›ืกืคื™ืช ื‘ืกื•ืฃ ื”ืžืื” ื”19.

ื‘ืชื—ื™ืœืช ื”ื“ืจืš ื˜ื›ื ื•ืœื•ื’ื™ื•ืช ืชืื•ืจืช ื”ืงืฉืช (ARC) ื”ื™ื™ืชื” ื”ื˜ื›ื ื•ืœื•ื’ื™ื” ื”ืžื•ืขื“ืคืช ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ื”ื—ืงืœืื™ื ื‘ืื•ืชื” ื”ืชืงื•ืคื”, ื—ื‘ืจืช ืกื™ืžื ืก (Siemens) ืืฃ ื ื™ื”ืœื” ืžื—ืงืจ ื‘ืฉื™ืœื•ื‘ ืชืื•ืจืช ื”ืงืฉืช ื‘1880 ื‘ืฉื ื”ืขืชื™ื“ื ื™ 'ื’ื™ื ื•ืŸ ื—ืฉืžืœื™' (Electro-horticulture).
ื‘ืฉื ืช 1900, ืžื ื•ืจื•ืช ืคืจื™ืงืช ื”ื’ื– ืขื‘ืจื• ืืช ื”ื”ืชืงื“ืžื•ืช ื”ืื‘ื•ืœื•ืฆื™ื•ื ื™ืช ื”ื ื“ืจืฉืช ืœืื—ืจ ืฉื—ืœื•ืฆื™ ื”ื—ืงืœืื™ื ื”ื˜ื›ื ื•ืœื•ื’ื™ื ื”ื—ืœื• ืœื”ืจื”ืจ ื•ืœืขืจืขืจ ืขืœ ื”ืกื›ื ื” ืฉื‘ืฉื™ืžื•ืฉ ื‘ืžื ื•ืจื•ืช ื”ืžื‘ื•ืกืกื•ืช ืขืœ ื’ื– ื›ืกืคื™ืช. ื‘ืขืงื‘ื•ืช ืื•ืชื” ืžื—ืื” ื™ืฆืจื ื™ ื”ืžื ื•ืจื•ืช ื”ื—ืœื• ืœื”ืฉืชืžืฉ ื‘ื’ื–ื™ื ืื—ืจื™ื ืฉื›ืœืœื• ื ืชืจืŸ, ื ืื•ืŸ ื•ืืจื’ื•ืŸ ืืฉืจ ื”ืจืื• ื”ื‘ื˜ื—ื” ื’ื“ื•ืœื” ื‘ืžื”ืœืš ื”ื ื™ืกื•ื™ื™ื ืฉื ืขืจื›ื• ื‘ืžื›ื•ืŸ ื‘ื•ื™ื™ืก ืชื•ืžืคืกื•ืŸ ื‘ืฉื ื•ืช ื”-30 (Boyce Thompson ). ืืš ืขืœ ืืฃ ื”ืชืงื“ืžื•ืช ื”ืžื—ืงืจื™ื, ื™ื™ืฆื•ืจืŸ ื•ื”ื˜ืžืขืชืŸ ื‘ืฉื˜ื— ืฉืœ ืžื ื•ืจื•ืช ื”ื ืชืจืŸ ื‘ืœื—ืฅ ื’ื‘ื•ื” ืฉืื ื• ืžื›ื™ืจื™ื ื›ื™ื•ื ื›HPS ื•Metal Halide, ื”ื—ืœ ืจืง ื‘ืฉื ื•ืช ื”50 ื•ื”60 ืฉืœ ื”ืžืื” ื”20.

ืœืœื ืชืœื•ืช ื‘ืขื ื ื™ื ืื• ื‘ืขื•ื ื•ืช ื”ืฉื ื”: ืžื ื•ืจื•ืช ื”ื’ื™ื“ื•ืœ ืžืฉื ื•ืช ืกื“ืจื™ ืขื•ืœื

ื—ืฉื™ื‘ื•ืช ื”ื›ื ืกืช ืžื ื•ืจื•ืช ื”ื’ื™ื“ื•ืœ ืœืฉื™ืžื•ืฉ ื ืจื—ื‘ ืืฃ ื™ื•ืชืจ ื ื•ื‘ืขืช ื‘ืจืืฉ ื•ื‘ืจืืฉื•ื ื” ืžื”ืขืฆืžืื•ืช ืฉื”ืŸ ืžืงื ื•ืช ืœืžื’ื“ืœื™ื. ืžืคืขืœื™ ื’ื™ื“ื•ืœ ื”ื™ื“ืจื•ืคื•ื ื™ื ืžืฆืœื™ื—ื™ื ืœื™ื™ืฆืจ 13 ืžื—ื–ื•ืจื™ ื’ื™ื“ื•ืœ ืฉืœ ื—ืกื•ืช ื‘ืฉื ื”, ืœืœื ืชืœื•ืช ื‘ืขื•ื ื•ืช ื”ืฉื ื”, ืœืœื ื—ืฉื™ืคื” ืœืชื ืื™ ืžื–ื’ ืื•ื™ืจ ืงื™ืฆื•ื ื™ื™ื, ืœืœื ืขื ื ื™ื, ืžื–ื™ืงื™ื ืื• ื‘ื–ื‘ื•ื– ืžืฉืื‘ื™ื, ื›ืืฉืจ ื›ืœ ื–ืืช ืœื ื”ื™ื” ืžืชืืคืฉืจ ืœื•ืœื ื”ื™ื™ืชื” ื–ืžื™ื ื” ืชืื•ืจืช ื’ื™ื“ื•ืœ ืืคืงื˜ื™ื‘ื™ืช ืฉืžืขื ื™ืงื” ืœืฆืžื—ื™ื ืืช ื”ืื•ืจ ื”ื ื—ื•ืฅ ืœื”ื ื‘ืขืœื•ืช ื›ื“ืื™ืช ื•ืžืฉืชืœืžืช ืฉืชืืคืฉืจ ื”ื™ืชื›ื ื•ืช ืขืกืงื™ืช.

ื—ื•ื•ืช ื’ื™ื“ื•ืœ INDOOR. ืงืจื“ื™ื˜: inhabitat

ืื™ืš ื‘ื•ื—ื ื™ื ืžื ื•ืจื•ืช ื’ื™ื“ื•ืœ ืœืฆืžื—ื™ื?

"ืงื ื™ืชื™ ืžื ื•ืจื” 600W", "ื”ืžื ื•ืจื” ืฉืœื™ ืžืคื™ืงื” 15,000 ืœื•ืžื™ื ื™ื", "ื”LUX ืืฆืœื™ ื‘ื—ื“ืจ ื”ื’ื™ื“ื•ืœ ื”ื•ื 5,000".
ื•ื•ืื˜, ืœื•ืžื™ื ื™ื, ืœื•ืงืกื™ื, ืคื•ื˜ืงื ื“ืœืก (Foot Candles), ื™ืขื™ืœื•ืช ืคื•ื˜ื•ื ื™ืช, ืกืคืงื˜ืจื•ื, DLI, PPFD, PAR, PPF – ืืœื• ื”ื ืจืง ื—ืœืง ืžืื™ื ืกื•ืฃ ื”ืžื•ื ื—ื™ื ื‘ื”ื ืžืฉืชืžืฉื™ื ื™ืฆืจื ื™ ืžื ื•ืจื•ืช ื”ื’ื™ื“ื•ืœ ื‘ื›ื“ื™ ืœืืžื•ื“ ื•ืœืฉื•ื•ืง ืืช ื”ืžื•ืฆืจื™ื ืฉืœื”ื, ืืš ืœืžืจื•ืช ืฉื”ืžื•ื ื—ื™ื ื›ื•ืœื ืžื˜ืจืชื ืœืžื“ื•ื“ ืืช ื”ืชืื•ืจื”, ืจืง ืงื•ืžืฅ ืžื”ื ืžื•ื“ื“ื™ื ืืช ื”ืขืจื›ื™ื ื”ืจืœื•ื•ื ื˜ื™ื ืœื ื• ืฉืขืœื™ื ื• ืœืงื—ืช ื‘ื—ืฉื‘ื•ืŸ ื‘ืขืช ื‘ื—ื™ืจืช ืžื ื•ืจืช ื”ื’ื™ื“ื•ืœ.
ื›ืืŸ ื ืกืงื•ืจ ืืช ื”ืžื•ื ื—ื™ื, ื ื’ื“ื™ืจ, ื ืกื‘ื™ืจ, ื ืชืงืŸ ื›ืžื” ืื™ ื”ื‘ื ื•ืช ื ืคื•ืฆื•ืช ื•ื‘ืชืงื•ื•ื” – ื ืกื™ื™ืข ืœื›ื, ื”ืžื’ื“ืœื™ื, ืœื”ื‘ื™ืŸ ืžื” ืœื‘ื“ื•ืง ื‘ื‘ื•ืื›ื ืœื‘ื—ื•ืจ ืžื ื•ืจืช ื’ื™ื“ื•ืœ.

ื”ืคืจืžื˜ืจื™ื ื”ืžืจื›ื–ื™ื™ื

ื›ืืฉืจ ื—ืงืœืื™ ืžืงืฆื•ืขื™ ืฉืžื‘ื™ืŸ ืขื ื™ื™ืŸ ืžื’ื™ืข ืœื‘ื—ื•ืŸ ืชืื•ืจืช ื’ื™ื“ื•ืœ ื”ื•ื ืงื•ื“ื ื›ืœ ื™ืงื— ื‘ื—ืฉื‘ื•ืŸ ืฉื ื™ ืคืจืžื˜ืจื™ื ืžืจื›ื–ื™ื™ื: ืืช ื”ื™ืขื™ืœื•ืช ื•ื”ืกืคืงื˜ืจื•ื ืฉืœ ื’ื•ืคื™ ื”ืชืื•ืจื”, ืื• ื‘ืžื™ืœื™ื ืื—ืจื•ืช – ืขื•ืฆืžืช ื”ื”ืืจื” ืฉื”ืžื ื•ืจื•ืช ืžืกืคืงื•ืช ื‘ื™ื—ืก ืœื›ืžื•ืช ื”ืื ืจื’ื™ื” ืฉื ื“ืจืฉืช ืœื”ืคืขื™ืœืŸ ื‘ืฉื™ืœื•ื‘ ืขื ื”ืกืคืงื˜ืจื•ื ืฉื”ืŸ ืžืคื™ืงื•ืช. ืฉื ื™ ื”ื’ื•ืจืžื™ื ื”ืืœื” ื”ื ืฉืžื ื™ืขื™ื ืืช ื›ืœืœ ื”ืคืขื•ืœื•ืช ืฉื”ืฆืžื— ืขื•ืฉื” ื•ืœื›ืŸ ื”ื˜ื›ื ื•ืœื•ื’ื™ื” ืฉืชืฆื™ืข ืืช ื”ื™ืชืจื•ืŸ ื”ื’ื“ื•ืœ ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ืžื”ื‘ื—ื™ื ื•ืช ื”ืœืœื• ืฆืคื•ื™ื” ืœืžืฆื•ื ืืช ืขืฆืžื” ื‘ืจืืฉ ื”ืขืจื™ืžื” ื”ืื‘ื•ืœื•ืฆื™ื•ื ื™ืช ืฉืœ ืžื ื•ืจื•ืช ื”ื’ื™ื“ื•ืœ ืžืกื‘ื” ืื•ืฉืจ ืจื‘ ืœืžื’ื“ืœื™ื ื”ืžืฉืชืžืฉื™ื ื‘ื”.
ืžืขื‘ืจ ืœืคืจืžื˜ืจื™ื ืฉืœ ื”ืขื•ืฆืžื” ื•ื”ืกืคืงื˜ืจื•ื, ื™ืฉื ืŸ ื ืงื•ื“ื•ืช ื ื•ืกืคื•ืช ืฉื™ืฉ ืœืงื—ืช ื‘ื—ืฉื‘ื•ืŸ ื›ืžื• ืขืœื•ื™ื•ืช ื™ื™ืฆื•ืจ, ืžืฉืื‘ื™ื, ื”ืคืขืœื”, ืื•ืจืš ื—ื™ื™ื ื•ืขื•ื“.

ื™ืขื™ืœื•ืชืืคืงื˜ื™ื‘ื™ื•ืช (Efficacy)

ื‘ื‘ื•ืื›ื ืœื‘ื—ื•ืŸ ืžื ื•ืจืช ื’ื™ื“ื•ืœ ืฉืืœื• ืงื•ื“ื ื›ืœ – ืžื” ื™ืขื™ืœื•ืชื”?
ื™ืขื™ืœื•ืช ื”ืžื ื•ืจื” ื”ื™ื ืžื“ื“ ืืฉืจ ืžืฆื‘ื™ืข ืขืœ ื›ืžื•ืช ื—ืœืงื™ืงื™ ื”ืื•ืจ ื”ืฉืžื™ืฉ (PAR – Photosynthetically active radiation) ืขื‘ื•ืจ ื”ืฆืžื—ื™ื ืฉื”ืžื ื•ืจื” ืžืคื™ืงื” ืžื›ืœ ื•ื•ืื˜ ืื ืจื’ื™ื” ืฉื”ื™ื ืฆื•ืจื›ืช ื‘ืฉื ื™ื”, ืื• ื‘ืžื•ื ื—ื™ื ืงืฆืช ื™ื•ืชืจ ืžืงืฆื•ืขื™ื™ื – ฮผmol / w / s ืื• ฮผmol / j. ืžื“ื•ื‘ืจ ืขืœ ืžื“ื“ ื—ืฉื•ื‘ ืžืื•ื“ ืฉื›ืŸ ื”ื•ื ืžืฉืคื™ืข ืœื ืจืง ืขืœ ืขื•ืฆืžืชื” ื”ืืžื™ืชื™ืช ืฉืœ ื”ืžื ื•ืจื” ื•ื™ืขื™ืœื•ืชื” ื‘ื’ื™ื“ื•ืœ ืฆืžื—ื™ื ื•ื‘ืขื™ื“ื•ื“ ืชื”ืœื™ื›ื™ ื”ืคื•ื˜ื•ืกื™ืชื ื–ื”, ืืœื ื’ื ืขืœ ื ื™ืฆื•ืœ ืืคืงื˜ื™ื‘ื™ ืฉืœ ื”ื—ืฉืžืœ ืœืฆืจื›ื™ ื”ื”ืืจื”.

ืฆืจื™ื›ืช ื”ื—ืฉืžืœ ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ืžื ื•ืจื•ืช ื”ื’ื™ื“ื•ืœ ื”ื™ื ืขืงื‘ ืื›ื™ืœืก ืฉืžื•ื›ืจ ืœืžื’ื“ืœื™ื ืจื‘ื™ื ืฉืžืชืžื•ื“ื“ื™ื ืขื ื—ืฉื‘ื•ื ื•ืช ื—ืฉืžืœ ื’ื‘ื•ื”ื™ื ืฉืžื•ืจื™ื“ื™ื ืืช ื”ื›ื“ืื™ื•ืช ื”ื›ืœื›ืœื™ืช ืฉืœ ื”ื’ื™ื“ื•ืœ ืชื—ืช ืชืื•ืจื” ืžืœืื›ื•ืชื™ืช.
ื‘ืขื–ืจืช ืžื“ื“ ื”ื™ืขื™ืœื•ืช, ื‘ืืคืฉืจื•ืชื ื• ืœื‘ื—ื•ืŸ ื›ืžื” ื—ืฉืžืœ ื”ืžื ื•ืจื” ืชืฆืจื•ืš ืœื ื• ื‘ื›ืœ ืฉื ื™ื” ื•ื›ืžื” ืื•ืจ ืฉืžื™ืฉ ืœืฆืžื— ื‘ืกืคืงื˜ืจื•ื ื”ืžืชืื™ื ื”ื™ื ืชืคืœื•ื˜ ื‘ืชืžื•ืจื”. ื–ื• ื’ื ื”ืกื™ื‘ื” ื‘ื’ืœืœื” ื”ืกืคืง ื”ืžื ื•ืจื” ืื™ื ื• ื‘ื”ื›ืจื— ืžื“ื“ ืœืงื‘ื™ืขืช ืขื•ืฆืžืช ื”ื”ืืจื” ื‘ืžื ื•ืจื•ืช ืœื“ ืื• ื›ืœ ืžื ื•ืจื” ืื—ืจืช. ืœื›ืŸ ื›ืฉืืชื ื‘ืื™ื ืœืจื›ื•ืฉ ืžื ื•ืจื” ืืœ ืชืชื ื• ืœื•ื•ืื˜ื™ื ืœืกื ื•ื•ืจ ืืชื›ื, ื‘ื™ื“ืงื• ืงื•ื“ื ื›ืœ ืžื”ื™ ื™ืขื™ืœื•ืชื” ืขืœ ืžื ืช ืœื‘ืฆืข ื‘ื—ื™ืจื” ื ื›ื•ื ื” ืฉืœ ืžื ื•ืจื” ืฉืœื ืจืง ืฉืชื’ื“ืœ ื ื”ื“ืจ ืืœื ื’ื ืชืขืฉื” ื–ืืช ื‘ื™ืขื™ืœื•ืช ื™ื•ืฆืืช ืžืŸ ื”ื›ืœืœ ืžื‘ื—ื™ื ืช ืฆืจื™ื›ืช ื”ืื ืจื’ื™ื”.

ืกืคืงื˜ืจื•ื (Spectrum)

ืงืจื“ื™ื˜: astronomersgroup.org

ื”ืกืคืงื˜ืจื•ื ืฉืœ ืžื ื•ืจืช ื”ื’ื™ื“ื•ืœ ืฉืœื›ื ื”ื•ื ืฉื™ืงื‘ืข ืžื” ื”ืชื”ืœื™ื›ื™ื ื”ื‘ื™ื•ืœื•ื’ื™ื ืฉื™ืขื‘ื•ืจ ื”ืฆืžื— – ื”ืื ืฆืžื™ื—ืชื• ืชื”ื ื ืžื•ื›ื” ื•ืฆืคื•ืคื” ืื• ืฉืžื ื™ืชืืจืš ื•ื™ืคืจื— ื‘ืžื”ื™ืจื•ืช?
ื”ืกืคืงื˜ืจื•ื ืœืžืขืฉื” ืžื™ื™ืฆื’ ืืช ื˜ื•ื•ื— 'ืฆื‘ืข' ื”ืื•ืจ ืฉืคื•ืœื˜ืช ื”ืžื ื•ืจื”. ืžืจื‘ื™ืช ื™ืฆืจื ื™ ื”ืžื ื•ืจื•ืช ืžืกืคืงื™ื ืืช ื”ืžื™ื“ืข ื”ื–ื” ืขืœ ืžื ืช ืฉื”ืฆืจื›ื ื™ื ื™ื‘ืฆืขื• ื‘ื—ื™ืจื” ืžื•ืฉื›ืœืช ืฉืžืชืื™ืžื” ืœืฆืจื›ื™ ื”ืฆืžื—ื™ื ืฉื‘ื—ืจื• ืœื’ื“ืœ.
ืฆื‘ืขื• ืฉืœ ื”ืื•ืจ, ืื• ื™ื•ืชืจ ื ื›ื•ืŸ, ื”ื™ื—ืก ื‘ื™ืŸ ืฆื‘ืข ืื—ื“ ืœืžืฉื ื”ื• ื‘ืชื•ืš ืกืคืงื˜ืจื•ื ื”ืžื ื•ืจื” ื”ื•ื ืฉืžืฉืคื™ืข ืขืœ ื”ืžื•ืจืคื•ืœื•ื’ื™ื” (ืžื‘ื ื” ื•ืฆื‘ืข) ื”ืฆืžื—. ื”ืฆื‘ืข ื”ืื“ื•ื ืžืขื•ื“ื“ ืคืจื™ื—ื”, ื”ืฆื‘ืข ื”ื›ื—ื•ืœ ืžืขื•ื“ื“ ืฆืžื™ื—ื” ื•ืื™ืœื• ืืช ื”ืฆื‘ืข ื”ื™ืจื•ืง ื”ืฆืžื— ืœื ืจื•ืื” ื›ืœืœ (ื–ื• ื”ืกื™ื‘ื” ื‘ื’ืœืœื” ืžื’ื“ืœื™ INDOOR ืฉืžื™ื ืžื ื•ืจื•ืช ื™ืจื•ืงื•ืช ื‘ื—ื“ืจื™ื, ื›ื“ื™ ืฉื™ื•ื›ืœื• ืœื”ื›ื ืก ื‘ื–ืžืŸ 'ื”ืฉื™ื ื”' ืžื‘ืœื™ ืœื”ืขื™ืจ ืืช ืžื ื•ื—ืชื ืฉืœ ื”ืฆืžื—ื™ื)
ื‘ื ื•ืกืฃ, ื™ืฉื ื ืฆื‘ืขื™ื ืฉื ืžืฆืื™ื ืžื—ื•ืฅ ืœื˜ื•ื•ื— ื”PAR (Photosynthetically active radiation – ืงืจื™ื ื” ื”ืžืขื•ื“ื“ืช ืคื•ื˜ื•ืกื™ื ืชื–ื”) ื›ืžื• UV ื•-NIR (ืื•ืœื˜ืจื ืกื’ื•ืœ ื•ืื™ื ืคืจื ืื“ื•ื) ืœื”ื ื”ืฉืคืขื” ื™ืฉื™ืจื” ืขืœ ื‘ื™ื•ืœื•ื’ื™ื™ืช ื”ืฆืžื— ื‘ืื•ืคืŸ ืฉืื™ื ื• ืงืฉื•ืจ ืœืชื”ืœื™ื›ื™ ื”ืคื•ื˜ื•ืกื™ื ืชื–ื” ื”ืจื’ื™ืœื™ื.
ื”ื”ื‘ื ื” ืฉืœื ื• ืืช ื”ืฆืžื— ื•ืฆืจื›ื™ื• ื”ื™ื ืฉืžื ื™ืขื” ืงื“ื™ืžื” ืืช ื˜ื›ื ื•ืœื•ื’ื™ื•ืช ื”ื’ื™ื“ื•ืœ.

ื˜ืขื•ื™ื•ืช ื ืคื•ืฆื•ืช ืื• – ืื™ืš ืœื ืžื•ื“ื“ื™ื ืžื ื•ืจื” ืœื’ื™ื“ื•ืœ ืฆืžื—ื™ื?

ืœื•ืžื™ื ื™ื ื”ื ืœื‘ื ื™ ืื“ื – ืœื ืœืฆืžื—ื™ื!

ื‘ื ื™ ืื“ื ื•ืฆืžื—ื™ื ืจื•ืื™ื ืืช ื”ืื•ืจ ืฉื•ื ื” ืžืื•ื“ ื–ื” ืžื–ื”. ื‘ื ื™ ืื“ื ื•ื‘ืขืœื™ ื—ื™ื™ื ืจื‘ื™ื ืื—ืจื™ื ืžืฉืชืžืฉื™ื ื‘ืžื” ืฉื ืงืจื "ื”ืขืงื•ืžื” ื”ืคื•ื˜ื•ืคื™ืช" ื‘ื›ื“ื™ ืœื”ื‘ื—ื™ืŸ ื‘ื™ืŸ ืฆื‘ืขื™ื ื•ืขื•ืฆืžื•ืช ืื•ืจ ื‘ืกื‘ื™ื‘ื” ืžื•ืืจืช ื”ื™ื˜ื‘.
ืœื•ืžืŸ (Lumen/lm) ื”ื™ื ื™ื—ื™ื“ืช ืžื™ื“ื” ืืฉืจ ื ื•ืขื“ื” ืœืžื“ื•ื“ ื‘ื“ื™ื•ืง ืืช ื–ื”, ืืช ืจื’ื™ืฉื•ืช ื”ืขื™ืŸ ื”ืื ื•ืฉื™ืช ื‘ืชื ืื™ ื”ืืจื” ื˜ื•ื‘ื™ื ื•ืฆื•ืจืชื” ื”ืคืขืžื•ื ื™ืช ื”ื™ื ื‘ื“ื™ื•ืง ื”ืกื™ื‘ื” ืœืฉืžื”.
ื”"ืคืขืžื•ืŸ" (ื”ืขืงื•ืžื”) ืžืจืื” ื›ื™ืฆื“ ื‘ื ื™ ืื“ื ืจื’ื™ืฉื™ื ื™ื•ืชืจ ืœืื•ืจ ื‘ืกืคืงื˜ืจื•ื ื”ื™ืจื•ืง ืžืืฉืจ ื‘ื›ื—ื•ืœ ืื• ื”ืื“ื•ื.

ืงืจื“ื™ื˜: https://fluence.science/

ืœื•ืงืก ื•ืคื•ื˜ ืงื ื“ืœ ื”ื ืœื•ืžื™ื ื™ื ื‘ืฉื™ื ื•ื™ ืื“ืจืช

ืœืขื•ืžืช ื–ืืช, ืœื•ืงืก (LUX) ื•ืคื•ื˜ ืงื ื“ืœืก (Foot candles) ื”ืŸ ื™ื—ื™ื“ื•ืช ืžื™ื“ื” ืœืžื“ื™ื“ืช ืขื•ืฆืžืช ื”ืื•ืจ (Light intensity), ื‘ืืžืฆืขื•ืช ื›ืžื•ืช ื”ืœื•ืžื ื™ื ื‘ืฉื˜ื— ืžืกื•ื™ื™ื, ื›ืืฉืจ ื”ื”ื‘ื“ืœ ื”ื™ื—ื™ื“ ืžื‘ื™ืŸ ื”ืฉื ื™ื™ื ื”ื™ื ื™ื—ื™ื“ืช ืžื™ื“ื” ืฉืžืฉืชืžืฉื™ื ื‘ื” ืขื‘ื•ืจ ืžื“ื™ื“ืช ื”ืฉื˜ื— ืขืฆืžื•, ื›ืืฉืจ LUX ืžื•ื“ื“ ื›ืžื•ืช ืœื•ืžื ื™ื ื‘ืžื˜ืจ ืžืจื•ื‘ืข (lumen/m2) ื•ืคื•ื˜ ืงื ื“ืœืก ืžื•ื“ื“ ื›ืžื•ืช ืœื•ืžื ื™ื ื‘ืคื™ื˜ (feet) ืžืจื•ื‘ืข (lumes/sqf).

ื™ืฉื ื• ืฉื™ืžื•ืฉ ื ืจื—ื‘ ื‘ื™ื—ื™ื“ื•ืช ื”ืžื™ื“ื” ื”ื "ืœ ื‘ื›ื“ื™ ืœืชืืจ ืขื•ืฆืžื•ืช ืฉืœ ืชืื•ืจื•ืช ื’ื™ื“ื•ืœ ื›ืืœื” ืื• ืื—ืจื•ืช, ืืš ื‘ืขื•ื“ ืฉื™ืฉ ื‘ื”ื—ืœื˜ ื”ืจื‘ื” ื”ื’ื™ื•ืŸ ืœื”ืฉืชืžืฉ ื‘ื”ื ื›ืืฉืจ ืžืชื™ื™ื—ืกื™ื ืœืชืื•ืจื” ืžืจื—ื‘ื™ืช ื‘ื™ื™ืฉื•ืžื™ื ื‘ื™ืชื™ื™ื, ืžืกื—ืจื™ื™ื ืื• ืชืขืฉื™ื™ืชื™ื™ื, ืื™ืŸ ื›ืœ ื”ื’ื™ื•ืŸ ืœื”ืฉืชืžืฉ ื‘ื”ื ื›ืืฉืจ ืžื•ื“ื“ื™ื ืฆืจื›ื™ื ืฉืœ ืชืื•ืจื” ืœื’ื™ื“ื•ืœ ืฆืžื—ื™ื (ืืฃ ืขืœ ืคื™ ื›ืŸ, ื™ืฉื ื” ืืคืฉืจื•ืช ืœื‘ืฆืข ื”ืžืจื” ืžืกื•ื™ื™ืžืช ืžืœื•ืงืกื™ื ืœืžื“ื“ ืจืœื•ื•ื ื˜ื™ – ืขืœื™ื• ื ืจื—ื™ื‘ ื‘ื”ืžืฉืš).

ื”ืกื™ื‘ื” ืœื›ืš, ื›ืคื™ ืฉืฆื™ื™ื ื• ืงื•ื“ื ื”ื™ื ืฉืœื•ืžื ื™ื ื”ื ื™ื—ื™ื“ืช ืžื™ื“ื” ืœืžื“ื™ื“ืช ื›ืžื•ืช ื”ืื•ืจ ื”ื ืจืื” ืœืขื™ืŸ ื”ืื ื•ืฉื™ืช ื”ื ืคืœื˜ ืžืžืงื•ืจ ื›ืœืฉื”ื•, ื›ืืฉืจ ื”ืจื’ื™ืฉื•ืช ื”ืžื™ืจื‘ื™ืช ื”ื™ื ื‘ื˜ื•ื•ื— ืฉืœ ื”ืื•ืจ ื”ื™ืจื•ืง. ื›ื›ืœ ืฉื™ืฉ ื™ื•ืชืจ ืœื•ืžื ื™ื ื›ื›ื” ื”ืื•ืจ ื™ืจืื” ื‘ื”ื™ืจ ื™ื•ืชืจ.
ื”ื‘ืขื™ื” ื‘ื›ืœ ื–ื” ื”ื™ื ืฉื”ืขื™ืŸ ื”ืื ื•ืฉื™ืช ืจื’ื™ืฉื” ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ืœืื•ืจ ื™ืจื•ืง (500nm ืขื“ 550nm) ืืš ื”ืฆืžื—ื™ื ืจื’ื™ืฉื™ื ื™ื•ืชืจ ืœืื•ืจ ื”ืื“ื•ื ื•ื”ื›ื—ื•ืœ, ืขื‘ื•ืจื ื• ื‘ื ื™ ื”ืื“ื ื”ืื•ืจ ืื•ืœื™ ื™ืจืื” "ื‘ื”ื™ืจ" ืžืื•ื“ ืื‘ืœ ื”ืฆืžื—ื™ื ืœื "ื™ืจืื•" ืืช ื”ืื•ืจ ื‘ืื•ืชื” ื”ืขื•ืฆืžื”, ืœื›ืŸ, ืœื•ืžื ื™ื ืื™ื ื ืžื“ื“ ื˜ื•ื‘ ืœืžื“ื™ื“ืช ื›ืžื•ืช ืื•ืจ ื”ื–ืžื™ื ื” ืœืฆืžื— ืœืชื”ืœื™ื›ื™ ื”ืคื•ื˜ื•ืกื™ื ื˜ื–ื” ืื• ื›ืคื™ ืฉืฆื™ื™ื ื• – ืœื•ืžื ื™ื ื”ื ืœื‘ื ื™ ืื“ื.

ื”ื”ืžืœืฆื” ืฉืœื ื• ืœื ืœื”ืฉืชืžืฉ ื‘ืœื•ืžื ื™ื ืื• ืœื•ืงืกื™ื ื‘ื›ื“ื™ ืœืงื‘ื•ืข ืืช ืขื•ืฆืžื•ืช ื”ื”ืืจื” ืฉืœ ืžื ื•ืจื•ืช ื”ื ื•ืขื“ื• ืœื’ื™ื“ื•ืœ ืฆืžื—ื™ื ืื• ืืช ืคื•ื˜ื ืฆื™ืืœ ื”ืฆืžื™ื—ื” ืฉืœ ื”ืฆืžื— ืชื—ืชื™ื”ืŸ. ืžื›ืฉื™ืจื™ื ืืฉืจ ืžื•ื“ื“ื™ื LUX ืื• Lumen ืœื ืœื•ืงื—ื™ื ื‘ื—ืฉื‘ื•ืŸ ืืช ื”ืกืคืงื˜ืจื•ื ื”ืกืคืฆื™ืคื™ ืืœื™ื• ื›ื•ื•ื ื” ื”ืžื ื•ืจื” (ืจืœื•ื•ื ื˜ื™ ื‘ืžื™ื•ื—ื“ ื‘ืžื ื•ืจื•ืช LED), ื‘ืžื™ื•ื—ื“ ื›ืืฉืจ ื”ืกืคืงื˜ืจื•ื ืฉื ื“ื’ืฉ ืขืœ ื”ืื•ืจ ื”ืื“ื•ื ื•ื”ื›ื—ื•ืœ ื•ืžืกื™ืจ ื›ืžืขื˜ ืœื—ืœื•ื˜ื™ืŸ ืืช ื”ืื•ืจ ื”ื™ืจื•ืง. (ื˜ื•ื•ื— ื”PAR).

ื”ืžื•ื›ืจ ื‘ื—ื ื•ืช ืืžืจ ืœืš ืฉื™ื•ืชืจ ื•ื•ืื˜ ื–ื” ื™ื•ืชืจ ื˜ื•ื‘? ื•ื‘ื›ืŸ, ืœื ื‘ื”ื›ืจื—

ื”ืจืœื•ื•ื ื˜ื™ื•ืช ืฉืœ ืœื•ืžื ื™ื ืœื‘ื“ื™ืงื” ื”ืื ื’ื•ืฃ ืชืื•ืจื” ื›ืœืฉื”ื• ืžืกืคืง ืžืกืคื™ืง ืื•ืจ ืœืฆืจื›ื™ื ืฉืœื ื•, ื”ื™ื ื‘ืขืจืš ื›ืžื• ื”ืจืœื•ื•ื ื˜ื™ื•ืช ืฉืœ ืžื“ื™ื“ืช ื›ืžื•ืช ื•ื•ืื˜ื™ื (WATT) ืฉืœ ืื ืจื’ื™ื” ืื•ืชื ื’ื•ืฃ ืชืื•ืจื” ืฆื•ืจืš ืžื”ืฉืงืข ื‘ืงื™ืจ, ื›ืœื•ืžืจ ื—ืœืงื™ืช ื•ืžื•ื’ื‘ืœืช ื‘ืžืงืจื” ื”ื˜ื•ื‘.

ื•ื•ืื˜ ื”ื•ื ื™ื—ื™ื“ืช ืžื™ื“ื” ื”ืžืฆื™ื™ื ืช ื”ืกืคืง ื—ืฉืžืœื™ ื”ืžื•ื–ืŸ ื‘ืžืขื’ืœ ื—ืฉืžืœื™ ื›ื–ื” ืื• ืื—ืจ.ย ื‘ืขื‘ืจ, ืžื’ื“ืœื™ื ื”ืฉืชืžืฉื• ื‘ื™ื—ื™ื“ืช ื”ืžื™ื“ื” ื”ื–ื• ื‘ื›ื“ื™ ืœืžื“ื•ื“ ืืช ื›ืžื•ืช ื”ืื•ืจ ื”ืžื•ืคืงืช ืข"ื™ ื’ื•ืคื™ ืชืื•ืจื”, ื ื•ืจืช ืžื ื•ืจืช ืœื™ื‘ื•ืŸ ื‘ื”ืกืคืง 100 ื•ื•ืื˜ ื‘ื”ื™ืจื” ื‘ื”ืจื‘ื” ืžืžื ื•ืจืช ืœื™ื‘ื•ืŸ ื‘ื”ืกืคืง ืฉืœ 50 ื•ื•ืื˜, ื•ืฉืชื™ ื ื•ืจื•ืช ืžื™ืฆืจื ื™ื ืฉื•ื ื™ื ื‘ืื•ืชื• ื”ืกืคืง, ื™ืคื™ืงื• ื›ืžื•ืช ื“ื•ืžื” ืฉืœ ืื•ืจ ืžื›ื™ื•ื•ืŸ ืฉื”ื ืžืฉืชืžืฉื™ื ื‘ืขื™ืงืจ ื‘ื˜ื›ื ื•ืœื•ื’ื™ื” ื–ื”ื”.ย ืื ื•ื•ืื˜ ื”ื™ื” ืื™ื ื“ื™ืงืฆื™ื” ืฉืœ ื‘ื”ื™ืจื•ืช, ืื– ื ื™ืชืŸ ื”ื™ื” ืœื—ืฉื‘ ื“ื™ื™ ื‘ืงืœื•ืช ืืช ื”ื”ื‘ื“ืœ ื‘ื™ืŸ ื’ื•ืคื™ ืชืื•ืจื” ื”ืฉื•ื ื™ื, ื›ืœื•ืžืจ ืžื ื•ืจื” ื”ืฆื•ืจื›ืช 100 ื•ื•ืื˜ ืžืคื™ืงื” ื›ืžื•ืช ื›ืคื•ืœื” ืฉืœ ืื•ืจ ื‘ื”ืฉื•ื•ืื” ืœืžื ื•ืจื” ื”ืฆื•ืจื›ืช 50 ื•ื•ืื˜ ื‘ืœื‘ื“. ืื– ื›ื™ื•ื, ื›ืฉืื ื• ืžื‘ืงืฉื™ื ืœืจื›ื•ืฉ ืžื ื•ืจื•ืช ื’ื™ื“ื•ืœ ื‘ืขืœื•ืช ืกืคืงื˜ืจื•ื ืžื•ืชืื ืœืฆืžื—ื™ื ื•ื—ืกื›ื•ื ื™ื•ืช ื‘ื—ืฉืžืœ, ืžื ื•ืจื•ืช ืœื“ (LED) ืœื’ื™ื“ื•ืœ ืฆืžื—ื™ื, ืžื“ื™ื“ืช ื”ื•ื•ืื˜ื™ื ื”ื•ืคื›ืช ืœืจืœื•ื•ื ื˜ื™ืช ื”ืจื‘ื” ืคื—ื•ืช, ืื ื‘ื›ืœืœ. ืžื“ื•ืข? ื•ื‘ื›ืŸ, ื‘ื”ื—ืœื˜ย ื™ืชื›ืŸ ืžืฆื‘ ื‘ื• ืžื ื•ืจืช ืœื“ ื‘ืขืœืช ืืคืงื˜ื™ื‘ื™ื•ืช ื ืžื•ื›ื” ื”ืฆื•ืจื›ืช 100 ื•ื•ืื˜ ืื ืจื’ื™ื”, ืชืคื™ืง ื”ืจื‘ื” ืคื—ื•ืช ืื•ืจ ืžืžื ื•ืจื” ื™ืขื™ืœื” ื™ื•ืชืจ ื”ืฆื•ืจื›ืช 50 ื•ื•ืื˜ ื‘ืœื‘ื“, ื›ืš ืฉืœื ืืช ื›ืžื•ืช ื”ื•ื•ืื˜ื™ื ื™ืฉ ืœืžื“ื•ื“ ืืœื ืืช ื”ื ืชื•ื ื™ื ืขืœื™ื”ื ื”ืจื—ื‘ื ื• ื‘ื”ืžืฉืš ื”ืžืืžืจ.

ืœืžืจื•ืช ืขื•ื‘ื“ื” ื–ื•, ืขื“ื™ื™ืŸ ืžืจื‘ื™ืช ืื ืฉื™ ื”ืžืงืฆื•ืข, ืžื•ื›ืจื™ื ื‘ื—ื ื•ื™ื•ืช ื”ื™ื“ืจื• ื•ืžื’ื“ืœื™ื ื™ืฉื•ื• ืžื ื•ืจื•ืช ื’ื™ื“ื•ืœ ืฆืžื—ื™ื ืžืกื•ื’ ืœื“ ื‘ืžื•ื ื—ื™ ื•ื•ืื˜, ืคืฉื•ื˜ ืžืฉื•ื ืฉื–ื” ื”ืกื˜ื ื“ืจื˜ ื”ื ื”ื•ื’ ื‘ืฉื•ืง, ืขืœ ืืฃ ืฉืื™ื ื• ื ื›ื•ืŸ ืื• ืชืงื ื™ ืžื“ืขื™ืช. ืœื›ืŸ ื›ืฉืชืคื’ืฉื• ื‘ืคืขื ื”ื‘ืื” ืื“ื ืฉื›ื–ื”, ืืœ ืชื—ืฉืฉื• ืœืชืงืŸ ืื•ืชื• ื•ืœืœืžื“ ืื•ืชื• ืืช ื”ื“ืจืš ื”ื ื›ื•ื ื” ื•ื”ืžื“ื•ื™ื™ืงืช ื™ื•ืชืจ ืœื”ืชื™ื™ื—ืก ื•ืœืžื“ื•ื“ ืžื ื•ืจื•ืช ื’ื™ื“ื•ืœ ืžืกื•ื’ LED, ืœืžืขืŸ ื›ื•ืœื ื•.

ืื™ืš ื›ืŸ ืžื•ื“ื“ื™ื ืชืื•ืจืช ื’ื™ื“ื•ืœ? (ืกืคืงื˜ืจื•ื, ื™ืขื™ืœื•ืช, PAR, PPF, PPFD, DLI)

ืขื“ ื›ื” ืขื‘ืจื ื• ืขืœ ื”ืžื•ื ื—ื™ื ืฉื›ื•ืœื ื• ืคื•ื’ืฉื™ื ื‘ื—ื™ืคื•ืฉื™ื ื• ืื—ืจ ืžื ื•ืจืช ื”ื’ื™ื“ื•ืœ ื”ืื•ืœื˜ื™ืžื˜ื™ื‘ื™ืช ื•ืฉืœืžืขืฉื” ืื™ืŸ ืœื”ื ืฉื•ื ืžืฉืžืขื•ืช ืื• ื—ืฉื™ื‘ื•ืช ื‘ื‘ื—ื™ื ืชื” ื›ืžื• ืœื•ืžื™ื ื™ื, ื•ื•ืื˜ื™ื, ืœื•ืงืกื™ื ื•ืคื•ื˜ ืงื ื“ืœ.. ืื‘ืœ ืื™ืš ื›ืŸ ื ื›ื•ืŸ ืœืžื“ื•ื“ ืืช ื”ืžื ื•ืจื•ืช? ื•ื‘ื›ืŸ, ื™ืฉื ื ืžืกืคืจ ืžื•ื ื—ื™ื ืฉืขืœื™ื ื• ืœื”ื›ื™ืจ ื‘ื“ืจืš ืœื”ื‘ื ืช ื”ืคืจืžื˜ืจื™ื ื”ืžื›ืจื™ืขื™ื ื‘ื ื•ื’ืข ืœืืคืงื˜ื™ื‘ื™ื•ืช ืžื ื•ืจืช ื”ื’ื™ื“ื•ืœ ืฉืœื ื• ื•ื”ื – PAR, ืกืคืงื˜ืจื•ื, PPF, PPFD ื•-DLI.

PAR – ืงืจื™ื ื” ืคื•ื˜ื•ืกื™ื ื˜ื˜ื™ืช ืืงื˜ื™ื‘ื™ืช

PAR – (ืงืจื™ื ื” ืคื•ื˜ื•ืกื™ื ืชื˜ื™ืช ืืงื˜ื™ื‘ื™ืช / Photosynthetic Active Radiation ) ื”ื•ื ืžื•ืฉื’ ื ืคื•ืฅ ื‘ืชืขืฉื™ื™ืช ืชืื•ืจืช ื”ื’ื™ื“ื•ืœ, ืืš ืœืขื™ืชื™ื ื’ื ื”ืžื‘ืœื‘ืœ ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ. PAR ืื™ื ื• ืžื“ื™ื“ื” ื›ืžื•ืชื™ืช ื›ืžื• ืžื˜ืจ ืื• ืงื™ืœื•, ืืœื ืžื’ื“ื™ืจ ืืช ืกื•ื’ ื”ืื•ืจ (ืžื“ืขื ื™ื ืงื•ืจืื™ื ืœืื•ืจ – "ืงืจื™ื ื” ืืœืงื˜ืจื•ืžื’ื ื˜ื™ืช") ื”ื ื“ืจืฉ ื‘ื›ื“ื™ ืœื”ืคืขื™ืœ ืืช ืชื”ืœื™ื›ื™ ื”ืคื•ื˜ื•ืกื™ื ืชื–ื” ื‘ืฆืžื—.
ื‘ืืžืฆืขื•ืช ืคื•ื˜ื•ืกื™ื ืชื–ื”, ื”ืฆืžื—ื™ื ืžืžื™ืจื™ื ืืช ืื ืจื’ื™ื™ืช ื”ืื•ืจ ืœืื ืจื’ื™ื” ื›ื™ืžื™ืช, ืฉื‘ืืžืฆืขื•ืชื” ื”ืฆืžื— ืžืจื›ื™ื‘ ืœืขืฆืžื• ืืช ื”ืžื–ื•ืŸ ื”ื ื“ืจืฉ ืขื‘ื•ืจื• ืœื’ื“ื™ืœื” ื•ืฉื’ืฉื•ื’ (ืžืงื•ืจ ื”ืžื•ืฉื’ ืžื™ื•ื•ื ื™ืช: ฯ†แฟถฯ‚ (ืคื•ึนืก, ืื•ืจ), ื•ื”ืžื™ืœื” ฯƒฯฮฝฮธฮตฯƒฮนฯ‚ ืกื™ื ืชื–ื” ืฉืคื™ืจื•ืฉื” ื”ืจื›ื‘ื”, ื™ืฆื™ืจืช ื—ื•ืžืจื™ื ืžื•ืจื›ื‘ื™ื ืžื—ื•ืžืจื™ื ืคืฉื•ื˜ื™ื ื™ื•ืชืจ, ื•ืœืคื™ื›ืš: ืคื•ื˜ื•-ืกื™ื ืชื–ื” – ืกื™ื ืชื•ื– ืื• ื”ืจื›ื‘ื” ื‘ืืžืฆืขื•ืช ื”ืื•ืจ – ืžืชื•ืš ื•ื™ืงื™ืคื“ื™ื”.)

ืกืคืงื˜ืจื•ื – ืกืš ื›ืœ ืื•ืจื›ื™ ื”ื’ืœ ื”ืžืจื›ื™ื‘ื™ื ืืช ื”ืื•ืจ

ื”ื“ื‘ืจ ื”ืžืขื ื™ื™ืŸ ื”ื•ื ืฉืฆืžื—ื™ื ืžืฉืชืžืฉื™ื (ืื•ืœื™ ืจื•ืื™ื?) ื‘ื˜ื•ื•ื— ืกืคืงื˜ืจื•ื ืžืื•ื“ ื“ื•ืžื” ืœื˜ื•ื•ื— ืื•ืชื• ืจื•ืื” ื”ืขื™ืŸ ื”ืื ื•ืฉื™ืช, ืืš ืื•ืจื›ื™ ื”ื’ืœ ืฉืื ื• ืจื•ืื™ื ื›ื‘ื”ื™ืจื™ื ื™ื•ืชืจ (ื›ืœื•ืžืจ, ื”ืื•ืจ ื”ื™ืจื•ืง) ืื™ื ื ืื•ืจื›ื™ ื”ื’ืœ ื”ื™ืขื™ืœื™ื ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ืœืคื•ื˜ื•ืกื™ื ืชื–ื”.
ื›ื™ื“ื•ืข ื™ืฉื ื ืกื•ื’ื™ ืื•ืจ ืฉื•ื ื™ื ื”ืžืกื•ื•ื’ื™ื ื›'ื ืจืื™ื' (ื›ืžื• ืœืžืฉืœ ืื•ืจ ื”ื ืจ) ืื• 'ื‘ืœืชื™ ื ืจืื™ื' (ื›ืžื• ืœื“ื•ื’ืžื ืื™ื ืคืจื ืื“ื•ื) ืœืขื™ืŸ ื”ืื ื•ืฉื™ืช. ืžื“ืขื ื™ื ืžื’ื“ื™ืจื™ื ืืช ืื•ืชื ืกื•ื’ื™ ืื•ืจ ื‘ืขื–ืจืช 'ืื•ืจื›ื™ ื”ื’ืœ' ืฉืœื”ื. ื›ืœ ืื•ืชื ืื•ืจื›ื™ ื”ื’ืœ ื”ืฉื•ื ื™ื ืžืจื›ื™ื‘ื™ื ื™ื—ื“ื™ื• ืืช ื”ืกืคืงื˜ืจื•ื ื”ืืœืงื˜ืจื•ืžื’ื ื˜ื™. ืกืคืงื˜ืจื•ื ื–ื” ื›ื•ืœืœ ื‘ืชื•ื›ื• ืงืจื ื™ ืจื ื˜ื’ืŸ, ื’ืœื™ ืจื“ื™ื• ื•ืื•ืจ ืื™ื ืคืจื ืื“ื•ื (ืืฃ ืื—ื“ ืžื”ื ืื™ื ื• ื’ืœื•ื™ ืœืขื™ืŸ ื”ืื ื•ืฉื™ืช), ืืš ื’ื ืืช ืื•ืจ ื”ืฉืžืฉ, ืžื ื•ืจื•ืช ืคืœื•ืจืกื ื˜ ืื•ืจ ื›ื—ื•ืœ ื•ืื“ื•ื ืžืžื ื•ืจื•ืช ืœื“ ืœื’ื™ื“ื•ืœ ืฆืžื—ื™ื, ืื• ื›ืœ ืžืงื•ืจ ืื•ืจ ื›ื–ื” ืื• ืื—ืจ.

ืœื›ืŸ ื”ื“ื‘ืจ ื”ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ืฉื™ืฉ ืœื”ื‘ื™ืŸ ืขืœ PAR ื”ื•ื ืฉื”ื•ื ืื™ื ื• ื›ืœื™ ืžื“ื™ื“ื” ืืœื ื˜ื•ื•ื— ื™ื—ืกื™ ื‘ืกืคืงื˜ืจื•ื ื”ืืœืงื˜ืจื•ืžื’ื ื˜ื™ (ื›ืœ ื”ืื•ืจ ื™ื—ื“ ื”ื•ื ื’ื ืจืง ื—ืœืง ืžื”ืกืคืงื˜ืจื•ื ื”ืืœืงื˜ืจื•ืžื’ื ื˜ื™) ืฉืฉื™ืžื•ืฉื™ ืœืฆืžื—ื™ื ืœืชื”ืœื™ื›ื™ ืคื•ื˜ื•ืกื™ื ืชื–ื”. ืžื•ื ื—ื™ ื”ืžื“ื™ื“ื” ืฉืขืœื™ื ื• ืœืงื—ืช ื‘ื—ืฉื‘ื•ืŸ ื”ื ื“ื•ื•ืงื ื”PPFD, PPF ื•-DLI, ืืš ืขืœื™ื”ื ื ืจื—ื™ื‘ ืžืžืฉ ืขื•ื“ ืžืขื˜.

ืื– ื‘ื—ื–ืจื” ืœืงืจื™ื ื”. ืงืจื™ื ื” ืคื•ื˜ื•ืกื™ื ืชื˜ื™ืช ืืงื˜ื™ื‘ื™ืช, ืื• PAR, ื”ื™ื ื˜ื•ื•ื— ืฉืœ ืื•ืจื›ื™ ื’ืœ ื‘ืชื—ื•ื ื”400-700nm (ื ืื ื•ืžื˜ืจ) ื‘ื” ืฆืžื—ื™ื ืžืฉืชืžืฉื™ื ืœื‘ื™ืฆื•ืข ืชื”ืœื™ื›ื™ ืคื•ื˜ื•ืกื™ื ืชื–ื”. ื”ืกืคื™ื’ื” ื”ื™ืขื™ืœื” ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ื ืžืฆืืช ื‘ืืžืฆืข ื˜ื•ื•ื— ื” (ื›ื—ื•ืœ)400 ื•ืืžืฆืข ื‘ื˜ื•ื•ื— ื”600 (ื›ืชื•ื-ืื“ื•ื). ื˜ื•ื•ื— PAR 'ืžื›ื•ื•ืŸ' ื•ื™ืขื™ืœ ื™ื•ืชืจ ืžืงื“ื ืฆืžื™ื—ื” ืื• ืคืจื™ื—ื” ืžื”ื™ืจื” ื™ื•ืชืจ ื•ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื”ื•ื‘ื™ืœ ืœื™ื‘ื•ืœ ื’ื“ื•ืœ ื™ื•ืชืจ, ืื ื›ื™ ืขื•ืฆืžืช ื”ืื•ืจ (Intensity) ื—ืฉื•ื‘ ืืฃ ื™ื•ืชืจ ืžื”ืกืคืงื˜ืจื•ื ืขืฆืžื•.

ื›ืฉื”ืขื•ืฆืžื” ืžืคืฆื” ืขืœ ื”ืขื“ืจ ืกืคืงื˜ืจื•ื ืื•ืคื˜ื™ืžืœื™

ืœื”ื“ื’ืžืช ื ืงื•ื“ื” ื”'ืขื•ืฆืžื” ื—ืฉื•ื‘ื” ื™ื•ืชืจ ืžื”ืกืคืงื˜ืจื•ื' ื ื™ืงื— ืืช ืžื ื•ืจื•ืช ื”HPS ืœืžืฉืœ. ื”ืกืคืงื˜ืจื•ื ืฉืœ ืžื ื•ืจื•ืช ื”HPS ื”ื ืคื•ืฆื•ืช ื”ื™ื•ื ื‘ืฉื•ืง ืžื›ื™ืœ ื“ื™ื™ ื”ืจื‘ื” ืื•ืจ ื‘ื˜ื•ื•ื— ื”-600nm ื•ืžื˜ื”, ื‘ื—ืœืง ื”ื›ืชื•ื ื•ื”ืฆื”ื•ื‘ ืฉืœ ื”ืขืงื•ืžื”.

ืงืจื“ื™ื˜: eyehortilux

ื”ื˜ื•ื•ื— ื”ื–ื” ืœื ื™ืขื™ืœ ื‘ืžื™ื•ื—ื“ ืขื‘ื•ืจ ื”ืคื•ื˜ื•ืกื™ื ืชื–ื” ืฉืื•ื”ื‘ืช ื‘ืขื™ืงืจ ืื•ืจ ืื“ื•ื ื•ื›ื—ื•ืœ, ืืš ื ื•ืจื•ืช ื”- HPS ื ื—ืฉื‘ื• ื‘ืžืฉืš ืฉื ื™ื ืœืชืื•ืจื” ืกืคืงื˜ืจื•ื ื”ื˜ื•ื‘ ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ืขื‘ื•ืจ ื”ืคืจื—ื”, ืžื“ื•ืข?
ื”ืกื™ื‘ื” ืœื›ืš ื”ื™ื ืฉืขืœ ืžื” ืฉ'ื—ืกืจ' (ืื• ื™ื•ืชืจ ื ื›ื•ืŸ ืขื•ื“ืฃ) ืœืžื ื•ืจื•ืช ื”HPS ื‘ืกืคืงื˜ืจื•ื ื”ืŸ ืžืคืฆื•ืช ื‘ืขื•ืฆืžืชืŸ (ืื™ื ื˜ื ืกื™ื‘ื™ื•ืช).

ื–ื• ื”ืกื™ื‘ื” ืœื›ืš ืฉื ื•ืจื•ืช 1000 ื•ื•ืื˜ HPS ืขื“ื™ื™ืŸ ื™ืขื™ืœื•ืช ื™ื•ืชืจ ืœืขื•ืžืช ื“ื’ืžื™ื ืžืกื•ื™ื™ืžื™ื (ื•ื‘ืขื™ืงืจ ืžื™ื•ืฉื ื™ื) ืฉืœ ืžื ื•ืจื•ืช ืœื“ (LED) ืฉืžืฉื•ื•ืงื•ืช ื›ืชื—ืœื™ืฃ ืœืžื ื•ืจื” ืฉืœ 1000 ื•ื•ืื˜. ื˜ื›ื ื•ืœื•ื’ื™ื™ืช ื”ืœื“ื™ื ื•ืขื•ืฆืžืชื ืคืฉื•ื˜ ืœื ื”ื™ื™ืชื” ื‘ืฉืœื” ืžืกืคื™ืง ื‘ืฉื ื•ืช 2009-10 , ื•ืœื›ืŸ ื“ื’ืžื™ื ื™ืฉื ื™ื ื•ืืคื™ืœื• ื“ื’ืžื™ื ื—ื“ืฉื™ื ื‘ืจืžื” ื™ืจื•ื“ื” ืฉืœ ืžื ื•ืจื•ืช ืœื“ ืœื’ื™ื“ื•ืœ ืคืฉื•ื˜ ืœื ืžืฆืœื™ื—ื™ื ืœืขืžื•ื“ ื‘ืขื•ืฆืžืชื” ืฉืœ ื ื•ืจืช ื”HPS. ืื‘ืœ ื”ื™ื•ื, ืžื ื•ืจื•ืช LED ืœื’ื™ื“ื•ืœ ื‘ืื™ื›ื•ืช ื’ื‘ื•ื”ื” ื‘ื”ื—ืœื˜ ืžืฆืœื™ื—ื•ืช ืœื”ืชื—ืจื•ืช ื‘ืขื•ืฆืžืช ื”HPS ื›ืืฉืจ ืื ืชืฉืœื‘ื• ืขื•ื‘ื“ื” ื–ื• ืขื ื”ื›ื•ื•ื ื” ืžื“ื•ื™ื™ืงืช ืฉืœ ื”ืกืคืงื˜ืจื•ื ื‘ืฉื™ืœื•ื‘ ืขื ื™ืขื™ืœื•ืช ื’ื‘ื•ื”ื” ื”ื•ืคื›ื•ืช ืื•ืชืŸ ืœืื˜ืจืงื˜ื™ื‘ื™ื•ืช ืืฃ ื™ื•ืชืจ ืขื‘ื•ืจ ื”ืžื’ื“ืœื™ื.

ืœื ืจืง ืขื•ืฆืžื”: ื‘ื™ื“ืงื• ืืช ืื™ื›ื•ืช ื•ืกื•ื’ ื”ืื•ืจ

ืื™ื›ื•ืช ื•ืกื•ื’ ื”ืื•ืจ ื”ื ืฉื™ืขืœื• ืœื›ื ืืช ื”ื™ืขื™ืœื•ืช ื•ื”ืชืคื•ืงื” ืžื”ืžื ื•ืจื” ืฉืชืจื›ืฉื• ื•ื–ืืช ืžื›ื™ื•ื•ืŸ ืฉ'ืœื–ืจื•ืง' ื›ืžื•ืช ื’ื“ื•ืœื” ืฉืœ ืื•ืจ ืขืœ ื”ืฆืžื— ืœื ื–ื• ื”ื—ื›ืžื” ื›ืฉืื ื• ืจื•ืฆื™ื ืœืžืงืกื ืืช ื”ืคื•ื˜ื ืฆื™ืืœ ื”ื’ื ื˜ื™ ืฉืœ ื”ืฆืžื— ื‘ืชืงื•ืคืช ื”ืฆืžื™ื—ื” ืื• ื”ืคืจื™ื—ื” ืฉืœื•.

ื˜ืขื•ืช ื ืคื•ืฆื”: ื”ืชื™ื™ื—ืกื•ืช ืœPAR ื‘ืžืงื•ื ืœPPFD

ื›ืคื™ ืฉื”ื‘ื”ืจื ื• ืงื•ื“ื, ืžื•ื ื— ื”PAR ืื™ื ื• ืžื•ื“ื“ ืืช ื›ืžื•ืช ื”ืื•ืจ, ืืœื ืจืง ืืช 'ืื™ื›ื•ืช' ื”ืื•ืจ. ืžื•ื ื— ื–ื” ื ืžืฆื ื‘ืฉื™ืžื•ืฉ ืœื ื ื›ื•ืŸ ืœืขื™ืชื™ื ืข"ื™ ื™ืฆืจื ื™ ืžื ื•ืจื•ืช ื•ืžื’ื“ืœื™ื ื›ืืฉืจ ื”ื ืžืชื™ื™ื—ืกื™ื ืœืžื“ื™ื“ืช ื”ืื•ืจ ื•ื‘ืื•ืคืŸ ืฉืขืœื•ืœ ืœื”ื˜ืขื•ืช ืืช ื”ืฆืจื›ืŸ ื›ื•ืชื‘ื™ื ืขืจื›ื™ื ืฉืœื ื‘ืืžืช ืžื™ื™ืฆื’ื™ื ืืช ื™ืขื™ืœื•ืชื” ืื• ืื™ื›ื•ืชื”. ื›ืš ืœืžืฉืœ ืื ื• ืขืฉื•ื™ื™ื ืœืคื’ื•ืฉ ืžื ื•ืจื•ืช ืฉื™ืฆืจื ื™ื”ืŸ ื™ื›ืชื‘ื• ืขืœื™ื” ื›ื™ ื”ื™ื ืžื™ื™ืฆืจืช 750 PAR, ืืš ืœืžื” ื”ื ื‘ืขืฆื ืžืชื›ื•ื•ื ื™ื? ื”ืื ื”ื›ื•ื•ื ื” ื”ื™ื ืœPPF ืฉืœ 750 umol/s ืื• ืฉื”ื›ื•ื•ื ื” ืœPPFD ืฉืœ 750umol/s/m2? ื•ื‘ืื™ื–ื” ืžืจื—ืง?
ืœืžืขืฉื” ืกื‘ื™ืจ ืœื”ื ื™ื— ื›ื™ ื”ืžื“ื™ื“ื” ืฉื”ื ืžืชื›ื•ื•ื ื™ื ืืœื™ื” ื”ื™ื 'ืฉื˜ืฃ ืคื•ื˜ื•ื ื™ื' ืื• 'ืฆืคื™ืคื•ืช ืฉื˜ืฃ ืคื•ื˜ื•ื ื™ื' ื‘ื˜ื•ื•ื— ื”ืงืจื™ื ื” ืคื•ื˜ื•ืกื™ื ื˜ื˜ื™ืช ืืงื˜ื™ื‘ื™ืช (PAR) ืื• ื‘ืงื™ืฆื•ืจ PPF ื• PPFD (Photosynthetic Photon Flux, Photosynthetic Photon Flux Density. ื‘ืžื™ื“ื” ื•ื ืชืงืœืชื ื‘ื ืชื•ืŸ ื–ื” ื‘ื‘ื—ื™ื ืช ืžื ื•ืจืช ื’ื™ื“ื•ืœ ื›ืœืฉื”ื™ ืื ื• ืžืžืœื™ืฆื™ื ืœื‘ืงืฉ ื”ื‘ื”ืจื•ืช ืžื”ื™ืฆืจืŸ.

ืื– ืื™ืš ื›ืŸ ืžื•ื“ื“ื™ื ืžื ื•ืจื•ืช ื’ื™ื“ื•ืœ?

ื‘ืขืช ื‘ื—ื™ืจืช ืžืขืจื›ืช ืชืื•ืจื” ืืฉืจ ืชืงื“ื ื•ืชื™ื™ืขืœ ืืช ืชื”ืœื™ืš ื”ืคื•ื˜ื•ืกื™ื ืชื–ื” ื™ืฉ ืœื”ืชื—ืฉื‘ ื‘ืฉืœื•ืฉ ืžื“ื™ื“ื•ืช* ื—ืฉื•ื‘ื•ืช:

ื›ืžื” ืื•ืจ ื‘ื˜ื•ื•ื— ื”PAR ื”ืžื ื•ืจื” ืžื™ื™ืฆืจืช (ื‘ื’ื•ื‘ื” ื”ืžื ื•ืจื”) = PPF
ื›ืžื” ืžื”ืื•ืจ ื”ื–ื” ื–ืžื™ืŸ ืœืฆืžื— ื‘ื›ืœ ืจื’ืข ื ืชื•ืŸ (ื‘ื’ื•ื‘ื” ื”ืฆืžื—) – PPFD
ื›ืžื” ืื•ืจ ื”ืฆืžื— ืžืงื‘ืœ ื‘ืžื”ืœืš ืคื•ื˜ื•ืคืจื™ื•ื“ ืื—ื“ (Photoperiod) , ื›ืœื•ืžืจ ื‘ืกื‘ื‘ ื™ื•ื/ืœื™ืœื” ืื—ื“ – DLI

*ื›ืœ ื”ืขืจื›ื™ื ื”ื "ืœ ื ืžื“ื“ื™ื ื‘ืžื•ืœ (Mole)

1. ืฉื˜ืฃ ืคื•ื˜ื•ื ื™ื – PPF – Photosynthetic Photon Flux

ืงืจื“ื™ื˜: curiousplant

ื”ืขืจืš ื”ืจืืฉื•ืŸ ืฉืชืจืฆื• ืœื‘ื“ื•ืง ืขืœ ืชืื•ืจืช ื”ื’ื™ื“ื•ืœ ืฉืœื›ื ื”ื•ื 'ืฉื˜ืฃ ื”ืคื•ื˜ื•ื ื™ื ื”ื›ืœืœื™' ืื• ื‘ืงื™ืฆื•ืจ ื”ื™ื“ื•ืข ืฉื”ื•ืกื›ื ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ื”ืงื”ื™ืœื” ื”ืžืงืฆื•ืขื™ืช – ื”'PPF'. ื”PPF ืžื•ื“ื“ ืืช ืกืš ื›ืœ ื”ืื•ืจ ื‘ืกืคืงื˜ืจื•ื ื”ืจืœื•ื•ื ื˜ื™ ื”ืžื™ื•ืฆืจ ืข"ื™ ืžืงื•ืจ ื”ืื•ืจ ื‘ื›ืœ ืฉื ื™ื”, ืื• ื‘ืžื™ืœื™ื ืื—ืจื•ืช PPF ืื•ืžืจ ืœื ื• ื›ืžื” PAR ื ืคืœื˜ ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ืžืงื•ืจ ืชืื•ืจื” ื›ืœืฉื”ื• ืœืฉื ื™ื” (ื‘ืžื™ืœื™ื ื˜ื›ื ื™ื•ืช ื™ื•ืชืจ, ื”PPF ืžื•ื“ื“ ืœื ื• ื›ืžื” ืคื•ื˜ื•ื ื™ื ืคืขื™ืœื™ื ืคื•ื˜ื•ืกื™ื ื˜ืชื™ืช ื ืคืœื˜ื™ื ืข"ื™ ืžืงื•ืจ ื”ืชืื•ืจื” ืœืฉื ื™ื”), ืžื“ื™ื“ื” ื–ื• ื‘ืื” ืœื™ื“ื™ ื‘ื™ื˜ื•ื™ ื‘ืžื™ืงืจื•ืžื•ืœ ืœืฉื ื™ื” (ฮผmol/s) ื•ื ื›ื•ื ื” ื‘ืžื™ื•ื—ื“ ืœืžื“ื™ื“ื” ื‘ื’ื•ื‘ื” ื”ืžื ื•ืจื” ืขืฆืžื” ื˜ืจื 'ืื‘ื“ื•' ืคื•ื˜ื•ื ื™ื ื‘ืชื•ื•ืš ื”ื’ื•ื‘ื” ื‘ื™ืŸ ื”ืžื ื•ืจื” ืœืฆืžื—.

ืขืœ ืืฃ ืฉืžื“ื™ื“ืช ื”PPF ื‘ื”ื—ืœื˜ ืฉื™ืžื•ืฉื™ืช ื•ืคืจืงื˜ื™ืช ืœื”ื‘ื ืช ืชืื™ืžื•ืช ืžื ื•ืจืช ื”ื’ื™ื“ื•ืœ, ื™ืฉ ืœืฉื™ื ืœื‘ ืœืขื•ื‘ื“ื” ืฉื”ื™ื ืœื ืื•ืžืจืช ืœื ื• ื›ืžื” ืื•ืจ ื ื•ื—ืช ื‘ืคื•ืขืœ ืขืœ ื”ืฆืžื—ื™ื ืื• ืขืœ ื›ืœ ืžืฉื˜ื— ืื—ืจ, ืืœื ืจืง ืืช ื›ืžื•ืช ื”ืื•ืจ ื”ื ืคืœื˜ ืžืžื ื•ืจืช ื”ื’ื™ื“ื•ืœ ืขืฆืžื”.

ืœืžืจื•ืช ื—ืฉื™ื‘ื•ืชื• ืฉืœ ื ืชื•ืŸ ื–ื”, ืžืกื™ื‘ื” ื›ื–ื• ืื• ืื—ืจืช, ื”ืžื•ืŸ ื™ืฆืจื ื™ื•ืช ืฉืœ ืžื ื•ืจื•ืช ื’ื™ื“ื•ืœ ืื™ื ืŸ ืžืคืจืกืžื•ืช ืื•ืชื•.
ื”ืกื™ื‘ื” ืœื›ืš ื™ื›ื•ืœื” ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื”ืขื•ื‘ื“ื” ืฉื”ื“ืจืš ื”ื™ื—ื™ื“ื” ืœืžื“ื•ื“ ืฉื˜ืฃ ืคื•ื˜ื•ื ื™ื ื‘ืฆื•ืจื” ืžื“ื•ื™ื™ืงืช ื”ื™ื ื‘ืขื–ืจืช ื›ื“ื•ืจ ื—ืœื•ืœ ื™ื™ืขื•ื“ื™ ื•ื’ื“ื•ืœ ื‘ืฆื‘ืข ืœื‘ืŸ ืฉืžื—ื–ื™ืจ ืื•ืจ (Integrating sphere) – ื›ืœื™ ื™ืงืจ ืžืื•ื“ ื”ืžื›ื™ืœ ืกื ืกื•ืจื™ื ืฉืžืชืขื“ื™ื ืืช ืคืœื™ื˜ืช ื”ืคื•ื˜ื•ื ื™ื ื›ืฉืžื ื™ื—ื™ื ื‘ืชื•ื›ื• ืืช ื’ื•ืฃ ื”ืชืื•ืจื”.

2. ืฆืคื™ืคื•ืช ืฉื˜ืฃ ืคื•ื˜ื•ื ื™ื – PPFD – Photosynthetic Photon Flux Density

ื”ืขืจืš ื”ืฉื ื™ ื•ืื•ืœื™ ื”ื—ืฉื•ื‘ ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ืฉื›ื“ืื™ ืœื”ื›ื™ืจ ื”ื•ื ื”-PPFD, ืืฉืจ ืžื•ื“ื“ ืืช 'ื›ืžื•ืช ื”ืื•ืจ' ืฉื‘ืคื•ืขืœ ืžื’ื™ืขื” ืœืฆืžื—ื™ื ืฉืœื ื•, ืื• ื›ืคื™ ืฉืžื“ืขื ื™ื ื”ื™ื• ืžื’ื“ื™ืจื™ื ืืช ื–ื” – ืžืกืคืจ ืคื•ื˜ื•ื ื™ื ืืงื˜ื™ื‘ื™ื ืคื•ื˜ื•ืกื™ื ื˜ืชื™ืช ืฉืžื’ื™ืขื™ื ืœืžืฉื˜ื— ืžืกื•ื™ื ื‘ื›ืœ ืฉื ื™ื”. ื”PPFD ื”ื•ื ื‘ืขืฆื ืžื“ื™ื“ื” ื ืงื•ื“ืชื™ืช ื‘ืื™ื–ื•ืจ ืžืกื•ื™ื ื‘ื—ืœืœ ื”ื’ื™ื“ื•ืœ ืฉืœื ื• (ื‘ื“ืจืš ื›ืœืœ ื‘ื’ื•ื‘ื” ื”ืฆืžื—) ื•ื”ื•ื ื ืžื“ื“ ื‘ืžื™ืงืจื•ืžื•ืœ ืœืžื˜ืจ ืœืฉื ื™ื” (ฮผmol / m2 / s).
ื”PPFD ื“ื•ืžื” ืžืื•ื“ ืœLUX ื‘ื›ืš ืฉื”ื•ื ืžื•ื“ื“ ืฉื˜ื— ืžืกื•ื™ื (ื”ื“ืžื™ื•ืŸ ื‘ื™ืŸ ื”PPFD ืœLUX ื”ื•ื ื›ืžื• ื”ื“ืžื™ื•ืŸ ื‘ื™ืŸ ื”ืœื•ืžื ื™ื ืœื‘ื™ืŸ ื”PPF).

ืœืฆื•ืจืš ื”ื”ืžื—ืฉื” ื›ื“ื™ ืœื”ืžื™ืจ ืœื•ืงืกื™ื(lux) ืœืฆืคื™ืคื•ืช ืฉื˜ืฃ ืคื•ื˜ื•ื ื™ื (PPFD) ืขืœื™ื ื• ืœื”ื›ืคื™ืœ ืืช ืงืจื™ืืช ื”ืœื•ืงืกื™ื ืฉืœื ื• ื‘ื’ื•ืจื ื”ืžืจื” ืจืœื•ื•ื ื˜ื™.
ื™ื—ืก ื”ื”ืžืจื” ืžืฉืชื ื” ื‘ื”ืชืื ืœืžืงื•ืจ ื”ืชืื•ืจื”, ืœื“ื•ื’ืžื: ืœืื•ืจ ืฉืžืฉ ื™ืฉ ื’ื•ืจื ื”ืžืจื” ืฉืœ 0.0185, ืžื ื•ืจื•ืช HPS ื ื™ืชืŸ ืœื—ืฉื‘ ืœืคื™ ื’ื•ืจื ื”ืžืจื” ืฉืœ 0.0122 ื•ื›ื•'.
ื›ืœื•ืžืจ ื‘ืžื™ื“ื” ื•ืžื“ื“ื ื• 34000 LUX ื‘ื—ืžืžื” ืฉืœื ื• ืื ื• ื ื›ืคื™ืœ ืืช ื”ืžืกืคืจ ื”ื–ื” ื‘ื’ื•ืจื ื”ื”ืžืจื” ืฉืœื ื•, ื‘ืžืงืจื” ื”ื–ื” ื”ื•ื 0.0185 (ืฉืžืฉ) ื ื’ืœื” ืฉื™ืฉ ืœื ื• PPFD ืฉืœ 629 umol / ืœืžื˜ืจ / ืœืฉื ื™ื” – ื”ื ื•ืกื—ื” ืœื—ื™ืฉื•ื‘ ื–ื” ืชื”ื™ื”: 34000 * 0.0185 = 629 (ื‘ื ื•ืกื—ื” ื–ื• ืœื ื”ืชื—ืฉื‘ื ื• ื‘ืื—ื•ื–ื™ ื”ืกื™ื ื•ืŸ ืฉืœ ื—ื•ืžืจ ื›ื™ืกื•ื™ ื”ื—ืžืžื”).
ืื ื ื™ืงื— ืœื“ื•ื’ืžื ื ื•ืจืช HPS 600 ื•ื•ืื˜ ื”ืžืคื™ืงื” ื‘ืžืžื•ืฆืข 43000 ืœื•ืงืก ื‘ืžืจื—ืง ืชืœื™ื” ืฉืœ 50 ืก"ืž ื•ื ื›ืคื™ืœ ืื•ืชื• ื‘ื’ื•ืจื ื”ื”ืžืจื” ื”ืจืœื•ื•ื ื˜ื™ (0.0122) ื ืงื‘ืœ PPFD ืฉืœ 524.6 umol / ืœืžื˜ืจ / ืœืฉื ื™ื” (43000*0.0122=524.6).

ื‘ื“ื•ืžื” ื ื™ืชืŸ ืœืขืฉื•ืช ื’ื ืืช ื”ื—ื™ืฉื•ื‘ ื”ื”ืคื•ืš, ื‘ื›ื“ื™ ืœื”ืžื™ืจ ืžPPFD ืœืœื•ืงืกื™ื ื™ืฉ ืœื”ืฉืชืžืฉ ื‘ื’ื•ืจื ื”ืžืจื” ืื—ืจ, ืขื‘ื•ืจ ืื•ืจ ื”ืฉืžืฉ ื’ื•ืจื ื”ื”ืžืจื” ื”ื™ื ื• 54, ื•ืื™ืœื• ืขื‘ื•ืจ ืžื ื•ืจื•ืช ื”HPS ื”ื•ื 82, ื›ืœื•ืžืจ 600 PPFD ืฉืœ ืื•ืจ ืฉืžืฉ ืฉื•ื•ื” ืขืจืš ืœ42230 ืœื•ืงืก ( 600 umol/s.m2 * 82 = 42,230 lux).

ืขืœ ืžื ืช ืœืกื™ื™ืข ืœื›ื ืœื‘ืฆืข ืืช ื”ื”ืžืจื” ื”ื ื“ืจืฉืช ืžืœื•ืงืก ืœPPFD ืœืคื™ ืืžืฆืขื™ ื”ืชืื•ืจื” ืฉืœื›ื ืจื™ื›ื–ื ื• ื‘ื˜ื‘ืœื” ืืช ื’ื•ืจืžื™ ื”ื”ืžืจื” ืœืฉื™ืžื•ืฉื›ื:

 

ืชื ืื™ ื”ืชืื•ืจื” ื”ื˜ื‘ืขื™ื™ื ืจืžื•ืช LUX/PPFD ืžืžื•ืฆืขื™ื
ืฉืžืฉ ื™ืฉื™ืจื” 32000 – 120000 ืœื•ืงืก / 592 – 2200 umol
ืื•ืจ ื™ื•ื/ืฆืœ ื—ืœืงื™ 10000 – 25000 ืœื•ืงืก / 185 – 463 umol
ื™ื•ื ืžืขื•ื ืŸ 1000 – 2000 ืœื•ืงืก / 19 -37 umol
ืฉืงื™ืขื”/ื–ืจื™ื—ื” 400 ืœื•ืงืก / 7.4 umol
ื™ืจื— ืžืœื 1 ืœื•ืงืก / 0.0185 umol
ืœื™ืœื” ืœืœื ื™ืจื— < 0.01 ืœื•ืงืก / < 0.000185 umol

 

ืฉืœ ื”ืื ื•ื›ืžื” ืื•ืจ ืชืฆื˜ืจื›ื• ืœื”ื•ืกื™ืฃ ื‘ื—ืžืžื” ื‘ื—ื•ืจืฃ ื‘ื›ื“ื™ ืœืฉืžืจ ืืช ื™ื™ืขื™ืœื•ืช ื”ื’ื™ื“ื•ืœ ืฉืœื›ื, ืื• ื”ืื ืžื ื•ืจืช ื”ื ืœ"ื’ ืฉืœื›ื ืžืคื™ืงื” ืžืกืคื™ืง ืื•ืจ ืขื‘ื•ืจ ืฉื˜ื— ื”ื›ื™ืกื•ื™ ื”ืจืฆื•ื™. ื›ืžื• ื›ืŸ ื”ื ื™ืกื™ื™ืขื• ืœื›ื ื‘ืžื™ื“ื” ื•ื”ื—ืœื˜ืชื ืœื”ื—ืœื™ืฃ ืืช ืžื ื•ืจื•ืช ื”HPS ื”ื™ืฉื ื•ืช ืฉืœื›ื ื‘ืžื ื•ืจืช ืœื“ ื—ื“ื™ืฉื” ืœื’ื™ื“ื•ืœ ืฆืžื—ื™ื ื•ืืชื ืจื•ืฆื™ื ืœื“ืขืช ื›ืžื” ื ื•ืจื•ืช ืœื“ ืชืฆื˜ืจื›ื•.

ืืš ืžื›ื™ื•ื•ืŸ ืฉืœื•ืงืกื™ื ืื™ื ื ืœื•ืงื—ื™ื ื‘ื—ืฉื‘ื•ืŸ ืืช ื”ืฆืจื›ื™ื ื”ืคื•ื˜ื•ืกื™ื ืชื˜ื™ื™ื ืฉืœ ื”ืฆืžื—, ื™ืฉ ืœื”ืฉืชืžืฉ ื‘ื ื•ืกื—ืื•ืช ืืœื• ืœื”ืขืจื›ื” ื‘ืœื‘ื“ ื•ื‘ื›ื“ื™ ืœื”ื’ื™ืข ืœื ืชื•ื ื™ื ืžื“ื•ื™ื™ืงื™ื ื™ืฉ ืœื”ืฉืชืžืฉ ื‘ืฆื™ื•ื“ ืžืชืื™ื ืœื›ืš. ืขื ื–ืืช, ืžื›ื™ื•ื•ืŸ ืฉืฆื™ื•ื“ ืœืžื“ื™ื“ืช PPFD (ืžื“ PAR, ืื• ื—ื™ื™ืฉืŸ ืงื•ื•ื ื˜ื™) ื”ื™ื ื• ื™ืงืจ ืžืื•ื“ (ืžืชื—ื™ืœ ื‘ืืœืคื™ ื“ื•ืœืจื™ื), ื•ืœื•ืงืกื™ื ื ื™ืชืŸ ืœืžื“ื•ื“ ื‘ืขื–ืจืช ืฆื™ื•ื“ ืžืื•ื“ ื ื’ื™ืฉ, ื•ื™ืฉื ืŸ ืžื’ื•ื•ืŸ ืืคืœื™ืงืฆื™ื•ืช ืฉื™ืขื–ืจื• ืœื›ื ืœืขืฉื•ืช ื–ืืช ืืคื™ืœื• ื‘ืขื–ืจืช ื”ื˜ืœืคื•ืŸ ื”ื—ื›ื ืฉืœื›ื, ื‘ืจื•ื‘ ื”ืžืงืจื™ื ื ื™ืชืŸ ื‘ื”ื—ืœื˜ ืœื”ืกืชืคืง ื‘ื”ืขืจื›ื” ื–ื•.

ืœืฆืขืจื ื• ืขืงื‘ ืจื™ื‘ื•ื™ ื“ื’ืžื™ื ื•ืกืคืงื˜ืจื•ืžื™ื ื‘ืชื—ื•ื ืชืื•ืจืช ื”LED ืœื’ื™ื“ื•ืœ ืฆืžื—ื™ื ื‘ืฉื•ืง, ืื™ืŸ ื ื•ืกื—ื” ืžืกืคืงืช ืœื”ืžืจืช ืงืจื™ืืช ืœื•ืงืกื™ื ืชื—ืช ืžื ื•ืจื•ืช ืืœื” ืœPPFD ื•ื‘ืจื•ื‘ ื”ืžืงืจื™ื ื ืฆื˜ืจืš ืœืกืžื•ืš ืขืœ ื”ื™ืฆืจื ื™ื ื•ืœื”ืชื™ื™ื—ืก ืœื ืชื•ื ื™ ื”ืžื“ื™ื“ื” ืื•ืชื ื”ื ืžืกืคืงื™ื ืขื‘ื•ืจื ื•.

*ืฉื™ืžื• ืœื‘ ืœื ืชื•ื ื™ PPFD ืžื•ื’ื–ืžื™ื ืžืฆื“ ื™ืฆืจื ื™ ื”ืชืื•ืจื” ื‘ื‘ื•ืื›ื ืœืจื›ื•ืฉ ืžื ื•ืจืช ื’ื™ื“ื•ืœ, ื›ื“ืื™ ืœื‘ื“ื•ืง ื‘ืื™ื–ื” ืžืจื—ืง ื”ื ื ืœืงื—ื• ืžื”ืžื ื•ืจื” ื•ืœื•ื•ื“ื ืฉืื™ืŸ ืžื“ื•ื‘ืจ ื‘ืžืจื—ืง ืงืจื•ื‘ ื‘ืฆื•ืจื” ืœื ืจื™ืืœื™ืกื˜ื™ืช ืขื‘ื•ืจ ืชืื•ืจืช ื’ื™ื“ื•ืœ.

ื›ืžื• ื›ืŸ ื—ืฉื•ื‘ ืœืงื—ืช ื‘ื—ืฉื‘ื•ืŸ ืืช ื”ืขื•ื‘ื“ื” ืฉืžื“ื™ื“ื” ื‘ื ืงื•ื“ื” ืื—ืช ื‘ืœื‘ื“ ื‘ืื™ื–ื•ืจ ื”ื’ื™ื“ื•ืœ ืื™ื ื” ืžื”ื•ื•ื” ืื™ื ื“ื™ืงืฆื™ื” ืžืกืคืงืช ืขื‘ื•ืจ ื”ืืจืช ืฉื˜ื— ื”ื’ื™ื“ื•ืœ ื›ื•ืœื•. ื‘ื›ื“ื™ ืœืงื‘ืœ ืžื“ื™ื“ื” ืžื“ื•ื™ืงืช ื™ื•ืชืจ ื™ืฉ ืœืงื—ืช ืžื“ื™ื“ื•ืช ืžืจื•ื‘ื•ืช ืขืœ ืคื ื™ ื›ืœ ื”ืฉื˜ื—, ื‘ื ืงื•ื“ื•ืช ื•ื‘ืžืจื—ืงื™ื ืฉื•ื ื™ื.

ื›ื›ืœ ืฉื ืชืจื—ืง ืžืžืงื•ืจ ื”ืชืื•ืจื” ื”ืฉื˜ื— ื‘ื• ื™ืคื’ืขื• ื”ืคื•ื˜ื•ื ื™ื ื™ื’ื“ืœ ื‘ื—ื–ืงืช ื™ื—ืก ื”ืžืจื—ืง, ื›ืœื•ืžืจ ืื ื ืชืจื—ืง ืคื™ ืฉืชื™ื™ื, ืฉื˜ื— ื”ื›ื™ืกื•ื™ ื™ื’ื“ืœ ืคื™ 4, ืื ื ืชืจื—ืง ืคื™ 3, ืฉื˜ื— ื”ื›ื™ืกื•ื™ ื™ื’ื“ืœ ืคื™ 9, ื›ืš ื’ื ืฆืคื™ืคื•ืช ื”ืคื•ื˜ื•ื ื™ื (PPFD) ื”ืคื•ื’ืข ื‘ืขืœื™ ื”ืฆืžื— ื™ืงื˜ืŸ ื‘ืื•ืชื• ื”ืื•ืคืŸ, ื›ืœื•ืžืจ ืคื™ ืจื™ื‘ื•ืข ื™ื—ืก ื”ืžืจื—ืง.
ืœืžืฉืœ ืื ื ืชืจื—ืง ืคื™ ืฉื ื™ื™ื ืžืžืงื•ืจ ื”ืชืื•ืจื”, ืงืจื™ืืช ื”PPFD ืชืงื˜ืŸ ืคื™ ืืจื‘ืข ื•ืื ื ืชืจื—ืง ืคื™ ืฉืœื•ืฉ, ื”ืงืจื™ืื” ืชืงื˜ืŸ ืคื™ 9 – ืชื”ืœื™ืš ื–ื” ื ืงืจื "ื—ื•ืง ืจื™ื‘ื•ืข ื”ื”ืคื›ื™ื" ืื•ืœื™ ื™ืฆื ืœื›ื ืœืœืžื•ื“ ืขืœื™ื• ื‘ืฉื™ืขื•ืจื™ ื”ืคื™ื–ื™ืงื” ื‘ื‘ื™ืช ืกืคืจ.

ื”ื—ืฉื™ื‘ื•ืช ืฉืœ ื›ืœ ื–ื” ืขื‘ื•ืจื ื•, ื”ื™ื ืฉื›ืืฉืจ ืื ื• ื‘ืื™ื ืœื—ืฉื‘ ืืช ื›ืžื•ืช ื”ืชืื•ืจื” ื”ื ื—ื•ืฆื” ืขื‘ื•ืจ ื—ืœืœ ื”ื’ื™ื“ื•ืœ ืฉืœื ื•, ื™ืฉ ืœืงื—ืช ื‘ื—ืฉื‘ื•ืŸ ืืช ื”ืžืจื—ืง ื”ืชืœื™ื™ื” ืฉืœ ื’ื•ืคื™ ื”ืชืื•ืจื” ืžื”ืฆืžื—ื™ื ืขืฆืžื. ืžื ื•ืจื” ื‘ืขืœืช PPFD ืžืกื•ื™ื ื‘ืžืจื—ืง ืชืœื™ื” ืฉืœ ืžื˜ืจ, ืชืจื“ ืœืขื•ืฆืžืช ื”ืืจื” ืฉืœ 25% ื‘ืœื‘ื“ ื‘ืžืจื—ืง ืฉืœ 2 ืžื˜ืจ, ืœ11.11% ืขื•ืฆืžื” ื‘ืžืจื—ืง ืฉืœ 3 ืžื˜ืจ, ื•ืœ6.25% ืขื•ืฆืžืช ื”ืืจื” ื‘ืœื‘ื“ ื‘ืžืจื—ืง ืฉืœ 4 ืžื˜ืจ, ื‘ื”ืฉื•ื•ืื” ืœืงืจื™ืื” ื”ืžืงื•ืจื™ืช (ื‘ืžืจื—ืง ืฉืœ ืžื˜ืจ ืžื”ืฆืžื—).

ื“ื•ื’ืžื ืœื ืชื•ื ื™ PPFD ื”ืžืชืงื‘ืœื™ื ืžืกืคืง ื”ืžื ื•ืจื•ืช, ืฉื™ืžื• ืœื‘ ืฉืขื•ืฆืžื•ืช ื”PPFD ืžืฉืชื ื•ืช ื‘ื”ืชืื ืœื’ื•ื‘ื” ืชืœื™ื”

ื›ื›ืœ ืฉื”ืื•ืจ ืงืจื•ื‘ ื™ื•ืชืจ, ื›ืš ื™ื•ืชืจ "ื—ืœืงื™ืงื™ ืื•ืจ" (ืคื•ื˜ื•ื ื™ื) ื ื•ื—ืชื™ื ืขืœ ืขืœื™ ื”ืฆืžื—ื™ื. ื”ืจื—ืงืช ื”ืžื ื•ืจื” ืœื• ื‘ืžืงืฆืช ื™ื›ื•ืœื” ืœื”ืฉืคื™ืข ืจื‘ื•ืช ืขืœ ืจืžื•ืช ื”PPFD ืฉื”ืฆืžื—ื™ื ืฉืœื›ื ืžืงื‘ืœื™ื ื•ื™ืฉ ืœืงื—ืช ืืช ื–ื” ื‘ื—ืฉื‘ื•ืŸ ื›ืืฉืจ ื‘ื•ื—ืจื™ื ืชืื•ืจื” ืžืชืื™ืžื” ืœื—ืœืœ ื”ื’ื™ื“ื•ืœ ืฉืœื ื•.

ืœืฉื™ืžื•ืฉื›ื ื˜ื‘ืœื” ื”ืžืฆื™ื’ื” ืืช ืฆืจื›ื™ ื”PPFD ืฉืœ ืฆืžื—ื™ ืžื–ื•ืŸ ืฉื•ื ื™ื:

ืกื•ื’ ืฆืžื— ืžื™ื ' PPFD (ฮผmol/mยฒ ืžืงืก' PPFD (ฮผmol/mยฒ ืžืžื•ืฆืข PPFD (ฮผmol/mยฒ
ืขื’ื‘ื ื™ื” 170 200 185
ืคืœืคืœ 70 130 100
ืžืœืคืคื•ืŸ 100 200 150
ืงื ื‘ื™ืก ืจืคื•ืื™ ื‘ืชืงื•ืคืช ืฆืžื™ื—ื” 280 400 350
ืงื ื‘ื™ืก ืจืคื•ืื™ ื‘ืชืงื•ืคืช ืคืจื™ื—ื” 650 1100
*ืœืœื ืชื•ืกืคืช CO2
850
ืกื—ืœื‘ื™ื 80 130 105
ื•ืจื“ื™ื 170 200 182
ื—ืกื” 200 295 250
ืคื˜ืจื•ื–ื™ืœื™ื” 200 320 270
ืชืจื“ 295 385 340
ืชื•ืชื™ื

3. ืื™ื ื˜ื’ืจืœ ื”ืืจื” ื™ื•ืžื™ – DLI – Daily Light Integral

ืื– ื›ืคื™ ืฉืืžืจื ื• PPFD ื”ื™ื ื” ืžื“ื™ื“ื” ืฉืœ ืขื•ืฆืžืช ืื•ืจ ื‘ื ืงื•ื“ื” ืžืกื•ื™ืžืช, ืื‘ืœ ืžื” ืฉื‘ืืžืช ืžืขื ื™ื™ืŸ ืืช ื”ืฆืžื—ื™ื ื”ื•ื ืกืš ื›ืœ 'ื—ืœืงื™ืงื™ ื”ืื•ืจ' ื”ื ื•ื—ืชื™ื ืขืœ ื”ืขืœื™ื ื‘ื™ืžืžื”, ืื• ื‘ืžื™ืœื™ื ืื—ืจื•ืช, ืกืš ื›ืœ ื”ืคื•ื˜ื•ื ื™ื ื”ืืงื˜ื™ื‘ื™ื ืคื•ื˜ื•ืกื™ื ื˜ืชื™ืช ื”ื ืงืœื˜ื™ื ืข"ื™ ืขืœื™ ื”ืฆืžื— ื‘ืžื”ืœืš ืžื—ื–ื•ืจ ื”ื”ืืจื” ื”ื™ื•ืžื™.
ื•ื›ืืŸ ืื ื—ื ื• ืžื’ื™ืขื™ื ืœื ืชื•ืŸ ื”ืฉืœื™ืฉื™ ืฉืœื ื• ืืฉืจ ืžื•ื“ื“ ืืช ืกืš ื”ืื•ืจ ื”ืžื•ืขื‘ืจ ืœืฆืžื— ืžื“ื™ ื™ืžืžื”, ื ื™ืชืŸ ืœืจืื•ืช ื‘ื• ื›'ืžื™ื ื•ืŸ ืชืื•ืจื” ื™ื•ืžื™' ื”ื ื“ืจืฉ ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ื”ืฆืžื—.
ื”ืกื”"ื› ื”ื–ื” ื™ื“ื•ืข ื‘ืฉืžื• ื”ืžืงื•ืฆืจ DLI ืื• Daily light integral, ื•ื”ื•ื ื ืžื“ื“ ื‘ืžื•ืœื™ื ืœืžื˜ืจ ืžืจื•ื‘ืข ืœื™ืžืžื” (mol/m2/d).

ื‘ืจื•ืจ ืฉืื ืžืฉืื™ืจื™ื ืืช ื”ืื•ืจื•ืช ื“ื•ืœืงื™ื ื–ืžืŸ ืจื‘ ื™ื•ืชืจ, ื”ืฆืžื—ื™ื ื™ืกืคื’ื• ื™ื•ืชืจ ืื•ืจ, ื›ืœื•ืžืจ ืžื ื•ืจื•ืช ื”ืžืคื™ืงื•ืช ืจืžื•ืช PPFD ื’ื‘ื•ื”ื•ืช ื”ื“ื•ืœืงื•ืช ืขืœ ืคื ื™ ื–ืžืŸ ื”ืืจื” (Photoperiod) ืงืฆืจ ื™ื•ืชืจ, ื™ื›ื•ืœื•ืช ืœืกืคืง ืืช ืื•ืชื• ื”DLI ื›ืžื• ืžื ื•ืจื•ืช ื‘ืขืœื•ืช ืจืžื•ืช PPFD ื ืžื•ื›ื•ืช ื™ื•ืชืจ ื”ื“ื•ืœืงื•ืช ืขืœ ืคื ื™ ื–ืžืŸ ื”ืืจื” ืืจื•ืš ื™ื•ืชืจ.

ืืš ื”ื’ื“ืœืช 'ืื•ืจืš ื”ื™ื•ื' ืื™ื ื” ืžื•ืขื™ืœื” ื‘ื”ื›ืจื— ืœื›ืœ ื”ืฆืžื—ื™ื ื•ื™ืฉื ื ืฆืžื—ื™ื ืฉื–ืงื•ืงื™ื ืœืฉืขื•ืช ื—ื•ืฉืš ื‘ื›ื“ื™ 'ืœืขื‘ื“' ืืช ื›ืœ ืื•ืชืŸ ืžื•ืœืงื•ืœื•ืช ืžื‘ื•ืกืกื•ืช ืคื—ืžืŸ ืฉื ื•ืฆืจื• ื‘ืชื”ืœื™ืš ื”ืคื•ื˜ื•ืกื™ื ืชื–ื”, ื•ื–ื• ื”ืกื™ื‘ื” ืœื›ืš ืฉื‘ืจื•ื‘ ื”ืžืงืจื™ื ื—ืฉื™ืคืช ื”ืฆืžื—ื™ื ืœืชืื•ืจืช ื’ื™ื“ื•ืœ ื‘ืžืฉืš 24 ืฉืขื•ืช ื‘ื™ืžืžื” ืœื ืชื’ื“ื™ืœ ืืช ืฉื™ืขื•ืจ ื”ืฆืžื™ื—ื” ื•ืืฃ ืชืคื’ืข ื‘ื”.
ื›ืžื• ื›ืŸ, ืฆืžื—ื™ ืžืจืคื ืจื‘ื™ื (ื›ื“ื•ื’ืžืช ื”ืงื ืื‘ื™ืก) ื“ื•ืจืฉื™ื ื‘ืžืžื•ืฆืข ื›6 ืฉืขื•ืช ืฉืœ ื—ื•ืฉืš ื‘ืžื”ืœืš ื”ืฉืœื‘ ื”ื•ื’ื˜ื˜ื™ื‘ื™ ืฉืœื”ื ื• 12 ืฉืขื•ืช ื—ื•ืฉืš ื‘ืžื”ืœืš ืžื—ื–ื•ืจ ื”ืคืจื™ื—ื” ื‘ื›ื“ื™ ืœื’ื“ื•ืœ ื‘ืฆื•ืจื” ื˜ื•ื‘ื” ื•ื‘ืจื™ืื”. ืฉื™ื ื•ื™ ืžื—ื–ื•ืจื™ ื”ืื•ืจ / ื—ื•ืฉืš ืฉืœ ื—ืœืœ ื”ื’ื™ื“ื•ืœ ืฉืœื›ื ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื‘ืœื‘ืœ ืืช ื”ืฆืžื—ื™ื ื•ืœื”ืฉืคื™ืข ืขืœ ื”ืชืคืชื—ื•ืชื.

ืœื›ืœ ืฆืžื— ื™ืฉ ืืช ื“ืจื™ืฉื•ืช ื”DLI ื”ืื•ืคื˜ื™ืžืœื™ื•ืช ืฉืœื•, ืืš ื™ืฉ ืœื• ื’ื ื ืงื•ื“ื•ืช ืžื™ื ื™ืžื•ื ื•ืžืงืกื™ืžื•ื ื”ืžืืคืฉืจื•ืช ืœื• ืœืฉืžืจ ื™ื›ื•ืœื•ืช ืฆืžื™ื—ื” ืชืงื™ื ื•ืช.
ื™ื•ืชืจ ืžื“ื™ ืื•ืจ ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื’ืจื•ื ืœื”ืœื‘ื ื” ื•ืœืฉืจื™ืคืช ืขืœื™ื ืžืื—ืจ ื•ื”ืชื”ืœื™ื›ื™ื ื”ืคื ื™ืžื™ื™ื ืฉืœ ื”ืฆืžื— ืื™ื ื ืžืกื•ื’ืœื™ื ืœื”ืชืžื•ื“ื“ ืขื ื”ืขืžืกืช ื”ืื•ืจ, ืืš ืขื ืžืขื˜ ืžื“ื™ ืื•ืจ ื”ืฆืžื—ื™ื ืœื ื™ืฆืœื™ื—ื• ืœื’ื“ื•ืœ ื‘ืฆื•ืจื” ืชืงื™ื ื” ื•ื‘ื“ืจืš ื›ืœืœ ื™ืชื—ื™ืœื• ืœื”ืชืืจืš ื‘ื—ื™ืคื•ืฉ ืื—ืจื™ื•.

ื”DLI ื”ืžืžื•ืฆืข ืขืœ ืคื ื™ ืฉื˜ื— ื›ื“ื•ืจ ื”ืืจืฅ ื ืข ื‘ื™ืŸ 5 ืœ 60 ืžื•ืœ/ ืœืžื˜ืจ ืžืจื•ื‘ืข / ืœ24 ืฉืขื•ืช (mol/m2/d) ื‘ื”ืชืื ืœืขื•ื ืช ื”ืฉื ื”, ืื•ืจืš ื”ื™ื•ื, ืงื• ื”ืจื•ื—ื‘ ื‘ื• ืื ื• ื ืžืฆืื™ื ื•ื›ืžื•ื‘ืŸ ื›ืžื” ืžืขื•ื ืŸ ื‘ืื•ืชื• ื”ื™ื•ื.
ื›ืคื™ ืฉื ื™ืชืŸ ืœืจืื•ืช ื‘ื˜ื‘ืœื” ืœืžืขืœื”, ืขื•ืฆืžื•ืช ื”ืืจื” ืฉืœ ืฉืžืฉ ื™ื›ื•ืœื•ืช ืœื”ื’ื™ืข ืœPPFD ืฉืœ ืžืขืœ 2200 ืžื™ืงืจื•ืžื•ืœ ื‘ืฉืขื•ืช ืฉื™ื, ืืš ื”ืฆืžื—ื™ื ืฉื’ื“ืœื™ื ื‘ื—ื•ืฅ ืื™ื ื ืžืงื‘ืœื™ื ืืช ื›ืœ ืื•ืชื ื”2200 ืžื™ืงืจื•ืžื•ืœ ื‘ืžื”ืœืš ื›ืœ ื”ื™ื•ื, ื›ืคื™ ืฉื ื™ืชืŸ ืœืจืื•ืช ื‘ื‘ื•ืงืจ ื•ื‘ืขืจื‘ ืงืจื™ืื•ืช ื”PPFD ื”ืŸ ื ืžื•ื›ื•ืช ื‘ื”ืจื‘ื”, ื•ืœื›ืŸ ืกื‘ื™ืจ ืฉื”ืžืžื•ืฆืข PPFD ื”ื™ื•ืžื™ ืœื ื™ื’ื™ืข ืืคื™ืœื• ืœืžื—ืฆื™ืช ืžื”PPFD ื‘ืฉืขื•ืช ื”ืฉื™ื.

ื—ืฉื•ื‘ ืœืงื—ืช ืืช ื”ืคืจืžื˜ืจื™ื ื”ืืœื” ื‘ื—ืฉื‘ื•ืŸ ื›ืืฉืจ ื‘ื•ื—ืจื™ื ืชืื•ืจืช LED ืœื’ื™ื“ื•ืœ ืฆืžื—ื™ื ืื• ื›ืœ ืชืื•ืจืช ื’ื™ื“ื•ืœ ืื—ืจืช, ื™ื•ืชืจ ืžื“ื™ ืื•ืจ ื–ื” ืœื ื“ื‘ืจ ื˜ื•ื‘ ื‘ื”ื›ืจื—, ืืš ื›ืš ื’ื ืžืขื˜ ืžื“ื™ ืื•ืจ.

ืจื•ื‘ ืžื’ื“ืœื™ ื”INDOOR ื‘ื“ืจืš ื›ืœืœ ืœื ืฆืจื™ื›ื™ื ืœื“ืื•ื’ ื‘ืงืฉืจ ืœDLI, ืžื›ื™ื•ื•ืŸ ืฉืœืžืจื•ืช ื”ื”ื‘ื“ืœ ื‘ืขื•ืฆืžื•ืช ื”ืชืื•ืจื” ื‘ื™ืŸ ืกื•ื’ื™ ื”ืžื ื•ืจื•ืช, ื–ืžืŸ ื”ื”ืืจื” ื›ื‘ืจ ื‘ื“ืจืš ื›ืœืœ ืžื•ื’ื“ืจ ืžืจืืฉ ื•ืขื•ืžื“ ืขืœ 18 ืฉืขื•ืช ืขื‘ื•ืจ ื”ืฉืœื‘ ื”ื•ื’ื˜ื˜ื™ื‘ื™ ื•12 ืฉืขื•ืช ืขื‘ื•ืจ ืฉืœื‘ ื”ืคืจื™ื—ื” ื•ื”ื ืชื•ืŸ ืฉื™ืฉ ืœื”ืฉืœื™ื ื”ื•ื ื”PPFD ืฉืœ ื”ืžื ื•ืจื” ื‘ื’ื•ื‘ื” ืชืœื™ื” ืžืกื•ื™ื™ื ืข"ืค ื”ื—ื™ืฉื•ื‘ ืฉื”ืกื‘ืจื ื• ืœืขื™ืœ.

ืœืขื•ืžืช ื–ืืช ืžื’ื“ืœื™ ื—ืžืžื•ืช, ื‘ื‘ื•ืื ืœืชื›ื ืŸ ืืช ื“ืจื™ืฉื•ืช ื”ืชืื•ืจื” ืฉืœื”ื ืฆืจื™ื›ื™ื ืœื”ืชื—ืฉื‘ ื‘DLI ื”ืžืžื•ืฆืข ื‘ืžื”ืœืš ืชืงื•ืคื•ืช ืฉื•ื ื•ืช ื‘ืฉื ื”, ื›ืืฉืจ ืขื•ืฆืžื•ืช ื”ืชืื•ืจื”, ืœืžืฉืœ ื‘ืกื•ืฃ ื”ืกืชื™ื• ืื• ื‘ื—ื•ืจืฃ, ื ืžื•ื›ื™ื ื‘ื”ืจื‘ื” ืœืขื•ืžืช ืขื•ืฆืžื•ืช ื”ืชืื•ืจื” ื‘ืชืงื•ืคืช ื”ืื‘ื™ื‘ ืื• ื”ืงื™ืฅ (ืœืคื—ื•ืช ื‘ื™ืฉืจืืœ).
ืจืง ืœืขื™ืชื™ื ืจื—ื•ืงื•ืช ื”DLI ื”ื™ื•ืžื™ ื‘ื—ืžืžื•ืช ืขื•ืœื” ืขืœ 28 ืžื•ืœ / ืœืžื˜ืจ ืžืจื•ื‘ืข / ืœื™ื•ื, ื•ืžื›ืืŸ ื”ืฆื•ืจืš ื‘ืชืื•ืจื” ืžืฉืœื™ืžื”.

ืžื›ื™ื•ื•ืŸ ืฉื”DLI ื ืžื“ื“ ื‘ืžื•ืœ (mol) ืœ24 ืฉืขื•ืช ื•ื”PPFD ื ืžื“ื“ ื‘ืžื™ืงืจื•ืžื•ืœ (ฮผmol) ืœืฉื ื™ื”, ื‘ื›ื“ื™ ืœื—ืฉื‘ ืืช ื”DLI ืขืœื™ื ื• ืœื”ื›ืคื™ืœ ืืช ืžืžื•ืฆืข ื”PPFD ื‘ื–ืžืŸ ื”ื”ืืจื” (photoperiod) ื•ืœื—ืœืง ื‘ 1,000,000.

ืื ืืชื ืžืชื’ืขื’ืขื™ื ืœื‘ื™ืช ื”ืกืคืจ ื™ืฉ ืœื ื• ื ื•ืกื—ื ืฉืชืขืฉื” ืœื›ื ืงืฆืช ื ืขื™ื ืขืœ ื”ืœื‘ ื•ืชืกื™ื™ืข ืœื—ืฉื‘ ืืช ื”DLI ืžืชื•ืš ื ืชื•ื ื™ ื”PPFD ื”ื–ืžื™ื ื™ื ืœื›ื:

ื ื•ืกื—ืช ื—ื™ืฉื•ื‘ DLI ืข"ื‘ ื”PPFD

DLI = PPFD x (3600 ืฉื ื™ื•ืช x photoperiod) / 1,000,000
PPFD: umol/m2/s
ืฉืขื” 1 = 3600 ืฉื ื™ื•ืช (ื–ืžืŸ ื”ืืจื” ื ืžื“ื“ ื‘ืฉืขื•ืช)
1,000,000 ืžื™ืงืจื•ืžื•ืœ (ฮผmol) = ืื—ื“ ืžื•ืœ (mole)

ืœื“ื•ื’ืžื : 750umol/m2/s x (3600s x 12h) / 1,000,000 = 32.4 moles/d

ื ื•ืกื—ืช ื—ื™ืฉื•ื‘ PPFD ืข"ื‘ ื”DLI

PPFD = DLI (mol) / photoperiod / 60 ืฉื ื™ื•ืช 60 / ื“ืงื•ืช x 1,000,000 = PPFD ยตmol/mยฒ
DLI: mol/m2/d
ืฉืขื” = 60 ื“ืงื•ืช, ื“ืงื” = 60 ืฉื ื™ื•ืช

ืœื“ื•ื’ืžื: 17mol/m2/d / 16h / 60m / 60s x 1,000,000 = 295.1ยตmol/mยฒ

ื›ืžื•ืช ื”ืคื•ื˜ื•ื ื™ื ื”ื›ืœืœื™ืช ื”ืžื’ื™ืขื” ืœืขืœื™ ื”ืฆืžื— ื‘ื–ืžืŸ ื”ืืจื” ืžืกื•ื™ื, ื›ืœื•ืžืจ DLI, ื”ื•ื ื”ื’ื•ืจื ื”ืžื›ืจื™ืข ื‘ื›ืžื” ืžื”ืจ ื•ื‘ืื™ื–ื• ื™ืขื™ืœื•ืช ื™ืฆืœื™ื—ื• ืื•ืชื ืฆืžื—ื™ื ืœื™ื™ืฆืจ ืกื•ื›ืจื™ื, ืœื’ื“ืœ ืชืื™ื ื—ื“ืฉื™ื ืื• ื‘ืžื™ืœื™ื ืื—ืจื•ืช – ืœืฆืžื•ื—.
ื‘ืจื’ืข ืฉืื ื• ื™ื•ื“ืขื™ื ืืช ื”DLI ื”ืžื•ืขื“ืฃ ืขืœ ื”ืฆืžื—ื™ื ืื• ื”ืืฆื•ืช ืฉืœื ื•, ื ื™ืชืŸ ื‘ืงืœื•ืช ืœืืคื™ื™ืŸ ืืช ืžืขืจื›ืช ื”ืชืื•ืจื” ืฉืชืกืคืง ืืช ื›ืžื•ืช ื”ืื•ืจ ื”ื ื“ืจืฉืช, ืชื›ื ื•ืŸ ืคืจืžื˜ืจ ื”ืชืื•ืจื” ื‘ื›ืœ ื—ืœืœ ื’ื™ื“ื•ืœ ืžืชื—ื™ืœ ื‘ื”ื’ื“ืจืช ื”DLI ื”ื ื“ืจืฉ!

ืขืจื›ื™ DLI ืื•ืคื™ื™ื ื™ื™ื ืœืกื•ื’ื™ ื’ื™ื“ื•ืœื™ื ื ืคื•ืฆื™ื

ื‘ืžื™ื“ื” ื•ืขืจื›ื™ ื”DLI ืฉืœ ื”ืฆืžื— ื”ืกืคืฆื™ืคื™ ืื•ืชื• ืชืจืฆื• ืœื’ื“ืœ ืื™ื ื ื™ื“ื•ืขื™ื ืœื›ื, ื ื™ืชืŸ ืœื”ื™ืขื–ืจ ื‘ืขืจื›ื™ื ื”ืžืžื•ืฆืขื™ื ื”ืžื•ืคื™ืขื™ื ืžื˜ื”.

ื’ื™ื“ื•ืœ ื‘ื—ืžืžื”:

ืฆืžื™ื—ื” ื•ื’ื˜ื˜ื™ื‘ื™ืช (ื—ืกื•ืชืชื‘ืœื™ื ื™ื) – ืžื™ื ื™ืžื•ื 13-17mol / ืœืžื˜ืจ ืžืจื•ื‘ืข / ืœื™ืžืžื”
ืคื™ืจื•ืช ื•ื™ืจืงื•ืช / ื”ืคืจื—ื” (ืคืœืคืœื™ื, ืขื’ื‘ื ื™ื•ืช, ืงื ื‘ื™ืก ืจืคื•ืื™) – 20-40mol / ืœืžื˜ืจ ืžืจื•ื‘ืข / ืœื™ืžืžื”

ื’ื™ื“ื•ืœ INDOOR:

ืžื™ืงืจื•ื’ืจื™ื ื™ื (microgreens) – ืžื™ื ื™ืžื•ื 6-12mol / ืœืžื˜ืจ ืžืจื•ื‘ืข / ืœื™ืžืžื”
ืฆืžื™ื—ื” ื•ื’ื˜ื˜ื™ื‘ื™ืช (ื—ืกื•ืชืชื‘ืœื™ื ื™ื) – ืžื™ื ื™ืžื•ื 12-17mol / ืœืžื˜ืจ ืžืจื•ื‘ืข / ืœื™ืžืžื”
ืคื™ืจื•ืช ื•ื™ืจืงื•ืช / ื”ืคืจื—ื” (ืคืœืคืœื™ื, ืขื’ื‘ื ื™ื•ืช, ืงื ื‘ื™ืก ืจืคื•ืื™) – 15-40mol / ืœืžื˜ืจ ืžืจื•ื‘ืข / ืœื™ืžืžื”

ืœืกื™ื›ื•ื

ืื ื”ื™ื™ืชื ืžืกืคื™ืง ืžืจื•ื›ื–ื™ื ื•ื ื—ื•ืฉื™ื ื•ื”ืฆืœื—ืชื ืœื”ื’ื™ืข ืขื“ ืœื›ืืŸ ื”ืจืฉื• ืœื ื• ืงื•ื“ื ื›ืœ ืœื”ืฆื“ื™ืข ืœื›ื ื•ืœื•ืžืจ ื›ืœ ื”ื›ื‘ื•ื“! ืื ื• ื™ื•ื“ืขื™ื ืฉืขืœ ืืฃ ืฉื”ื™ื” ื ื—ืžื“ ืื ื”ื‘ื ื” ืฉืœ ืชื—ื•ื ืžื ื•ืจื•ืช ื”ื’ื™ื“ื•ืœ ื”ื™ื” ืคืฉื•ื˜ ื•ืงืœ ื•ืœื ื“ื•ืจืฉ ืžืื™ืชื ื• ืœื—ื–ื•ืจ ืœื™ืžื™ ื”ื—ื˜ื™ื‘ื” ื•ื”ืชื™ื›ื•ืŸ ื–ื” ื”ื™ื” ืขื“ื™ืฃ, ืื‘ืœ ื”ืžืฆื™ืื•ืช ื”ื™ื ื›ื–ื• ืฉื™ืฉื ื” ื”ืžื•ืŸ ื“ื™ืกืื™ื ืคื•ืจืžืฆื™ื”, ื’ื (ื•ืื•ืœื™ ื‘ืขื™ืงืจ?) ืืฆืœ ืื ืฉื™ ื”ืžืงืฆื•ืข ื•ืžื•ื›ืจื ื™ ื”ื”ื™ื“ืจื• ืฉืžื‘ืœื‘ืœื™ื ืืชื›ื ืขื ื ืชื•ื ื™ื ืฉืื™ื ื ืจืœื•ื•ื ื˜ื™ื ื•ืœื ืžื•ื‘ื™ืœื™ื ืืชื›ื ืœืชื•ืฆืื•ืช ื”ื’ื™ื“ื•ืœ ืฉืงื™ื•ื•ื™ืชื ืœื”ืฉื™ื’.

ื‘ืžืงืจื” ืฉืœ ืชืื•ืจืช ื”ื’ื™ื“ื•ืœ ืื™ืŸ ื™ื•ืชืจ ืžื“ื™ ืžืงื•ื ืœืคืจืฉื ื•ื™ื•ืช, ืžื“ื•ื‘ืจ ืขืœ ืžื“ืข ืื•ื‘ื™ื™ืงื˜ื™ื‘ื™ ืฉืœืื—ืจ ืฉื”ื•ื‘ืŸ ื”ื•ืคืš ืคืฉื•ื˜ ื•ืื™ื ื˜ื•ืื™ื˜ื™ื‘ื™ ื•ืขืชื”, ืœืื—ืจ ืฉื”ื‘ื ืชื ืžื” ื›ืŸ ื•ืœื ื—ืฉื•ื‘ ื‘ื‘ื—ื™ื ืช ืžื ื•ืจื•ืช ื”ื’ื™ื“ื•ืœ, ื™ืฉ ืœื›ื ืืช ื›ืœ ื”ื›ืœื™ื ืœื‘ืฆืข ื‘ื—ื™ืจื” ืžื•ื“ืขืช ื•ืืคืงื˜ื™ื‘ื™ืช ืฉืœ ืžื ื•ืจืช ื”ื’ื™ื“ื•ืœ ื”ืื™ื“ืืœื™ืช ืขื‘ื•ืจื›ื.


ืžื ื•ืจื•ืช ื”ื’ื™ื“ื•ืœ ื”ืžื•ืžืœืฆื•ืช ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ NATURE TECH

ืœืื—ืจ ื‘ื—ื™ื ื” ืžื“ื•ืงื“ืงืช, ื‘ื“ื™ืงื•ืช ืžืขื‘ื“ื” ื•ืžื—ืงืจ ืฉื‘ื™ืฆืขื ื• ื›ืืŸ ื‘ื ื™ื™ืฆ'ืจ ื˜ืง, ื‘ื—ืจื ื• ืœืขื‘ื•ื“ ืืš ื•ืจืง ืขื ืžื ื•ืจื•ืช ืฉืื ื• ื‘ื˜ื•ื—ื™ื ื‘ื™ืขื™ืœื•ืชืŸ ื•ืชืคื•ืงืชืŸ, ื›ืžื• ื‘ืฆืจื™ื›ื” ื”ืื ืจื’ื˜ื™ืช ื”ื ืžื•ื›ื” ืฉืœื”ืŸ.

ืœื—ืฆื• ื›ืืŸ ืœืฆืคื™ื™ื” ื‘ืžื ื•ืจื•ืช

ืฉืชืคื• ืืช ื”ืขื’ืœื” ืฉืœื›ื
ืคืชื— ื•ื•ื˜ืกืืค
ื“ื‘ืจื• ืื™ืชื ื• ื‘ื•ื•ื˜ืกืืค ๐Ÿ’ฌ
ื”ื™ื™ ืฉื ๐Ÿ‘‹
ืจืง ืจืฆื™ื ื• ืœื”ื–ื›ื™ืจ ืฉืื ื™ืฉ ืœืš ืฉืืœื” ืื ื—ื ื• ื–ืžื™ื ื™ื ื’ื ื›ืืŸ ื‘ื•ื•ื˜ืกืืค.